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Introduction To Evolution

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  • Introduction To Evolution

    "... the evidence supporting descent with modification ... is both overwhelming and compelling."

    Many Darwinists wonder how we could possibly deny the 'fact of evolution'. After all, we can actually observe changes in nature, such as bacteria 'evolving' to become resistant to antibiotics. How can the history-denying people possibly not see this? The only explanation, Darwinists say, is that we are willingly ignorant of the truth.

    However, we do not deny variation. Not even the most fundamental die-hard scientist would ever deny that change occurs! Presenting variations, such as bacterial resistance, with the view that we deny them is a misrepresentation of our position.

    A net gain of new genetic information cannot arise by recombination of genes in the same way that rearranging a small book will not result in the British library. Theoretically, another small book with new information may arise, but there is no net gain.

    Define evolution !

    Evolutionists usually define their theory as 'change over time', 'descent with modification', or 'the change of allele frequencies of a population over time'. But these definitions are oversimplified.
    The Theory of Evolution (the idea that all life has descended from a common ancestor) requires a net gain in new genetic information for it to occur. E.g., for a Lego house to change into a skyscraper, we must add the instructions for making steel, bricks, foundations etc. to the manual of the Lego house. These instructions do not already exist in the manual and cannot come about by rearranging the information already inside the manual.

    In much the same way, we must add the 'instructions' which make blood, limbs, organs etc. to the genome of our supposed microbe-like common ancestor. These instructions must be entirely new -- they cannot come about by a rearrangement of pre-existing DNA, since the 500,000 DNA 'letters' of our common ancestor must change to the three billion 'letters' of humans.

    The Real Definition according to neo-darwinism:

    'the idea that all life has descended from a single common ancestor over millions of years via a net gain in new genetic information'.

    'Change over time', 'descent with modification', and 'a change in the allele frequencies of a population over time' are too ambiguous and do not actually explain how all life may have evolved from a common ancestor.

    So why does this matter?

    Fallacy of equivocation:

    Evolutionists use undeniable examples of 'change over time' (variation) to prove 'the idea that all life has descended from a single common ancestor over millions of years via a net gain in new genetic information' (microbe-like-to-man evolution).

    This inexcusable logic is called equivocation or the bait-and-switch fallacy, and occurs when someone changes the definition of a word halfway through an argument.
    The supposed Evidence for Evolution is full of examples of 'change over time' as evidence for microbes-to-man evolution.

    When an evolutionist claims that evolution is a fact, as almost all do, ask him what he means by the word 'evolution' and what facts he has to support this. No doubt 'evolution' will mean 'change over time' and the
    facts supporting it are simply examples of change over time, such as bacterial resistance (an example which everyone entirely agree with).

    To sum it all up, evolutionists provide examples of simple variation (where no new genetic information is added) to prove microbes-to-man evolution (where a net gain in new genetic information is required).
    This is illogical to say the least.

    One of two or more genes that may occur alternatively at a given site (locus) on a chromosome (gene version).

  • #2
    Mechanisms ( of changes in allele frequencies NOT darwinism, read above)

    1- Natural selection:
    • Heritable variation exists within populations of organisms.
    • Organisms produce more progeny than can survive.
    • These offspring vary in their ability to survive and reproduce.

    These conditions produce competition between organisms for survival and reproduction. Consequently, organisms with traits that give them an advantage over their competitors pass these advantageous traits on,
    while traits that do not confer an advantage are not passed on to the next generation.
    Natural selection can sometimes be a tautology (a statement that is true by virtue of its logical form, rather than by the substance of the statement), It means "survival of the fittest". Who is the fittest? Those that survive. Who survive? The fittest.
    The general characteristics of natural selection are:
    • Limited: It can only select from existing traits, and cannot create new traits;
    • Rapid: It can adapt a species to new environmental conditions within a few generations;
    • Increases Specialization: Natural selection adapts organisms to particular environments or niches.
    • Decreases Diversity: Traits disadvantageous in a particular environment (although potentially advantageous in another environment) are lost, leaving a less diverse gene pool narrowly suited to its environment.

    2- Mutation:
    A mutation is any heritable change in DNA sequence (DNA errors) that contributes to genetic variability.

    3- Genetic drift
    It is the establishment of certain alleles due to random sampling (sampling error) of the gene pool leading to the net decrease in genetic variability and heterozygosity over time.
    Genetic Drift is a random genetic process.
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    In each generation, some individuals may, just by chance, leave behind a few more descendents (and genes, of course!) than other individuals. The genes of the next generation will be the genes of the "lucky" individuals, not necessarily the healthier or "better" individuals.


    • #3
      4-Genetic draft (hitchhiking=selective sweep):

      Some neutral genes are genetically linked to others that are under selection.
      To understand, imagine that a new advantageous mutation (X) occurs on Chromosome 4, in the middle of gene versions P, Q, and R. In genetic terms, we would say that the mutation and those genes are linked -- that is, they are close together on the same chromosome. The new mutation is so beneficial that its carrier leaves lots of offspring -- many of whom also carry the mutation and the other linked genes.

      Over many generations, natural selection increases the frequency of mutation X, and because they are physically attached to X, gene versions P, Q, and R come along for the ride (i.e., "hitchhike" to high frequency). Of course, as X spreads, recombination occasionally occurs between it and its neighboring genes, breaking down this tight association somewhat. We begin to see X in association with different combinations of gene versions (e.g., with r instead of R). If we examine the population at the end of this process of natural selection, we will see mutation X at high frequency, often occurring alongside the same set of gene versions (P, Q, and R), and less frequently alongside other gene versions (p, q, and r).

      Linkage disequilibrium describes a situation in which some combinations of genes or genetic markers occur more or less frequently in a population than would be expected from their distances apart. Scientists apply this concept when searching for a gene that may cause a particular disease. They do this by comparing the occurrence of a specific DNA sequence with the appearance of a disease. When they find a high correlation between the two, they know they are getting closer to finding the appropriate gene sequence.

      5- Migration (Gene flow)

      Gene flow is the transfer of alleles from one population to another population through immigration of individuals. In this example, one of the birds from population A immigrates to population B, which has less of the dominant alleles, and through mating incorporates its alleles in into the other population.