Bookmark Website  | Free Registration  | The Team
The Lounge  | Champions  | The Wire |  Schedule |  Audio  |  Arcade  |  The Top Ten  |  Historical  |  Email  |  Video

Omega 3 and Reduced Risk of Myocardial Infarction


Myocardial infarction is a technical term used to describe an irreversible injury to heart muscle. It is normally used as a synonym for a heart attack and will be so used in this essay. Myocardial infarction is normally related to progressive atherosclerosis (blockage of the arteries.) Essentially the heart is slowly starved of oxygen and stops functioning properly causing irreparable damage and even death.

It is no surprise that much of the developed world suffers from heart disease because of diet and other lifestyle habits. In the United States heart disease remains the number one killer among adults and demonstrates similar statistics in many other modern countries. The surprise comes in knowing that the majority of heart disease is avoidable yet educated people continue to ignore the dangers and promote lifestyles conducive to cardiac damage. Though many factors contribute to heart disease the current essay will focus on one, in two parts. First we will consider the relation of fish consumption and myocardial infarction. Secondly we will consider the effects of dietary supplementation with omega-3 and vitamin E for those who had previously survived a heart attack.

Fish consumption and heart disease has been a topic of innumerable studies. One research project combined data taken from several such studies including the Chicago Western Electric Study, the Zutphen, Rotterdam and Swedish studies and the Study of U.S. Physicians among others. The goal of this research was to examine the relationship between fish consumption and the 30-year risk of death from coronary disease.

The participants of the study included 1,822 men between the ages of forty and fifty-five who were free of cardiovascular disease. For the first ten years annual examinations were given and mailed questionnaires and/or telephone interviews were used for the next fifteen years. Death certificates were used to classify cause of death for each patient.

During the 30-years follow up there were a total of 430 deaths from cardiovascular disease with 293 due to myocardial infarctions. Of the latter 196 were sudden, 94 were non-sudden and the remaining three could not be classified as either. Almost all of the sudden deaths were caused by myocardial infarction.

Detailed dietary history was kept on each participant with daily fish consumption as the primary focus. Each participant was categorized into one of four groups. The first group reportedly consumed no fish. The second group consumed between one and seventeen grams of fish per day. The third and fourth groups measured consumption as eighteen to thirty-four grams per day and greater than thirty-four grams per day respectively.

Predictably the results demonstrated an inverse relationship between fish consumption and the occurrence of myocardial infarction. In particular the participants who ate at least 35 grams of fish per day had a 42% lower death rate from heart attack compared to those who ate no fish at all.

The findings of these combined studies were consistent with other data concluding that diets high in fish demonstrate a reduced occurrence of death from coronary heart disease. This is especially true in relation to deaths that are of a non-sudden nature. That is not to conclude, however, that fish consumption does not inversely affect the risk of sudden cardiac death. Other studies have verified that such a relationship exists. Those studies are, however, beyond the scope of this essay.

But why does fish consumption improve heart health? It could just be the fact that people who eat fish eat less of other harmful foods. To focus a little more closely on the beneficial causes of fish consumption it is important to consider at least one study that isolated omega-3 intake via dietary supplements regardless of diet. The interesting thing about this study is that it was concerned with the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E supplementation on patients who had already experienced a heart attack.

The GISSI-Prevenzione trial, as it is known, hoped to establish any relationship that might exist between omega-3 and vitamin E as combined agents in the fight against heart disease. It was a randomized trial involving 11,234 patients who had survived a heart attack within the previous three months at the time the study began. The participants were divided into four groups. Group one received one gram of omega-3 supplements daily. Group two received 300mg of vitamin E every day. Group three received both while the control group received neither. Each participant received clinical examinations with blood samples taken and were asked to fill out diet questionnaires at the outset of the experiment and at six, twelve, eighteen, thirty and forty-two months.

The data were analyzed using two methods. A two-way analysis was made comparing omega-3 supplementing and no omega-3, as well as vitamin E intake compared to no vitamin E. A four-way analysis was also conducted comparing the combination of omega-3 and vitamin E with omega-3 alone and vitamin E alone. The effects of the combined supplements were also compared with the group that took no supplements.

The results of the test demonstrated a 14% decrease in death from any cause for the two-way analysis and a 20% drop in death rate for the four-way analysis. Concerning only death due to cardiovascular disease, the two-way analysis showed a 17% reduction of risk while the four-way analysis revealed a 30% decrease. Though vitamin E is known to be a powerful antioxidant, the group that supplemented with the combination of omega-3 and vitamin E showed no life-expectancy advantage over the group that supplemented with only the omega-3.

The overall conclusion of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial was that supplementing with omega-3 provided long term benefits in lowering risk of death for patients who had experienced a myocardial infarction.

Greg holds degrees in science, divinity and philosophy and is currently an I.T. developer.

http://www.optimal-heart-health.com/fishoils.html


MORE RESOURCES:

fox4kc.com

Doctor recommends alternative to calcium supplements
fox4kc.com
KANSAS CITY, Mo. — Many women still take calcium supplements to prevent brittle bones. But several recent studies link the pills to a higher risk of heart attacks, and a government task force says there's little evidence that the supplements prevent ...



dailyRx

Vitamin E, Selenium May Not Prevent Cataracts
WebMD
THURSDAY, Sept. 18, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Daily supplements of selenium or vitamin E don't seem to protect against the development of age-related cataracts among men, a new study indicates. Previous animal research has suggested that one or both ...
Vitamin E and Selenium supplements may not prevent cataracts in menKSBY San Luis Obispo News
Vitamin E Supplements Do Not Appear to Prevent CataractsHCPLive
Null Findings on Selenium Supplements for Cataract PreventionPharmacy Times
dailyRx
all 19 news articles »


Global Q&A: 'Do you believe a well-balanced diet needs supplements?'
The Epoch Times
Ideally, a well-balanced diet and lifestyle do not need supplements, although certain circumstances may require supplements to support a health crisis or chosen lifestyle. This is what Epoch Times reporters from areas such as Peru to United Arab ...



Vitamin K supplements failed to improve BMD in postmenopausal osteopenia
Healio
Women with osteopenia after menopause demonstrating low vitamin K1 concentrations did not improve bone mineral density with long-term vitamin K1 supplements for the deficiency, according to research presented at the American Society for Bone and ...



MinnPost

Study ties herbal and dietary supplements to serious liver damage
MinnPost
The number of liver injuries associated with supplements is still much, much lower than those attributed to conventional medications, but, proportionally, supplements are significantly more likely to lead to serious injuries that result in a liver ...



New York Daily News

Supplements cause more liver damage, decadelong study finds
New York Daily News
"While many Americans believe supplements to be safe, government … require less safety evidence to market products than what is required for conventional pharmaceuticals," lead author Dr. Victor Navarro, from Einstein Medical Center Philadelphia, said ...
Are herbs and dietary supplements bad for your liver?TheHealthSite
Herbals, Dietary Supplements Linked To Liver InjuryScience 2.0
Dietary, Herbal Supplements Lead To Liver Damage 20% Of The TimeMedical Daily
ConsumerAffairs -NDTV
all 28 news articles »


the supplements that really do help you look and feel great
Herald.ie
Don't worry, you don't need to take these supplements or even visit one of these shops in order to sustain or improve your healthy holistic lifestyle. However, in order to feel the best we can, recover from our workouts and get the right nutrients to ...

and more »


Medscape

Liver Injuries From Supplements Up 3-Fold in 10 Years
Medscape
Unregulated herbal or dietary supplements (HDS) used by bodybuilders and by middle-aged women trying to lose weight have become increasingly important as causes of liver injury over the course of the last 10 years, researchers report in an article ...
Supplement-Related Liver Injuries Are Up, But No Cause for Blanket Warning ...Nutritional Outlook

all 3 news articles »


Philly.com

Steer Clear of Dietary Supplements for Concussions: FDA
Philly.com
26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- As the fall sports season starts and young players face the risk of concussions, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that dietary supplements that claim to prevent, treat or cure concussions are untested, unproven ...
FDA warns consumers: Dietary supplements cannot treat concussionsWTSP 10 News
FDA takes action against Georgia dietary supplement manufacturerFDA.gov
Dietary supplements: Kids can be informed consumersAhwatukee Foothills News

all 21 news articles »


NutraIngredients-usa.com

Calcium supplements may support a healthy colon: Harvard study
NutraIngredients-usa.com
Supplements of calcium or non-dairy products fortified with the mineral may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, according to meta-analysis of prospective observational studies by researchers at Harvard School of Public Health.


Google News


Advertisement



Section Site Map - Submit News - Feedback - Comments - Advertise with Us

Copyright 2006 Luminati Inc. All rights reserved.