Glutathione - Your Brains Master Antioxidant Defense
Free radicals and oxyradicals play an important role in the development and progression of many brain disorders such as brain injury, neurodegenerative disease, schizophrenia and Down syndrome.
Glutathione is the brain's master antioxidant and plays an important protective role in the brain.
According to Dr. Jimmy Gutman, "The brain is particularly susceptible to free radical attack because it generates more oxidative by-products per gram of tissue than any other organ."
Many neurological and psychiatric disease processes are characterized by... abnormalities in glutathione metabolism and antioxidant defenses."
Generation of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and oxidative damage are an important cause of neuron (brain cell) death from brain injury.
Chemicals that cause toxicity to certain brain cells are known to decrease cerebral glutathione (GSH), making the cells more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species (ROS). (1)
On the other hand, over-expression of the glutathione peroxidase (GPX) enzyme potently decreases cell death from brain injury. (2)
Brain Injury and Glutathione - The Gender Difference
Researchers at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh have found that males and females respond differently to brain injury. (3)
In animal models, levels of glutathione remain constant in females who have suffered a brain injury, but drop by as much as 80 percent in males with the same injury.
When glutathione levels drop, brain cells die much more quickly. This suggests that boys with brain injuries may require different life-saving treatments than girls.
N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione, already approved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat people who have overdosed on acetaminophen, may be an effective treatment for brain injury in boys whose brains are deprived of oxygen.
Brain Disorders and Glutathione - A Genetic Cause?
Genetics researchers have found that the glutathione S-transferase gene controls the onset of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease and determines, not if we get these diseases, but when. (4)
The glutathione S-transferase gene has previously been linked to the risk for Parkinson's disease among people who used pesticides.
A previous article covered the importance of glutathione in Parkinson's Disease.
Alzheimer's Disease and Glutathione
Free radicals and oxidative damage in neurons is known to be a primary cause of degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease.
Amyloid-ß peptide (Aß) accumulation in senile plaques, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been implicated in neuronal degeneration.
Amyloid plaques encroaching on the brain increase the production of free radicals, or oxidative stress. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C and E "mop up" the damaging free radicals.
Glutathione (GSH) precursors can prevent death of brain cells induced by amyloid plaques in Alzhiemer's disease, while substances that deplete GSH increase cell death. (5)
Evidence has been piling up over the link between the amount of an amino acid called homocysteine in the blood and the chance of developing Alzheimer's.
For people not genetically predisposed to developing Alzheimer's, cholesterol and homocysteine, largely caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, are the core causal factors.
Welsh GP, Andrew McCaddon, showed that the more homocysteine that patients with Alzheimer's had, the worse their mental performance, and the worse their "cognitive impairment," the less they had of the antioxidant glutathione. (6)
Glutathione and Mood Disorders
Studies have found that the mood stabilizing drug, valproate, used to treat epilepsy and bi-polar disorder, regulates expression of the genes that make glutathione-S-transferase (GST).
In addition, chronic treatment with lithium, another commonly prescribed mood stabilizer used in treating manic-depression, also increased levels of GST.
These findings led researchers to conclude that glutathione S-transferase may be a novel target for mood stabilizing drugs. (7)
Alcohol Consumption and Glutathione
Alcohol abuse is known to impair memory and other brain functions and increase brain cell death. A new study in rats has shown that alchol consumption causes fewer new brain cells to form and results in greater cell death. (8)
But rats that were fed alcohol along with Ebselen - a glutathione peroxidase mimic that acts as a free radical scavenger - showed no similar reduction in brain-cell formation and no increase in cell death.
Substances that Boost Glutathione Levels and Protect Brain Cells
Taking glutathione itself as a supplement does not boost cellular glutathione levels, since it breaks down in the digestive tract before it reaches the cells.
However, intravenous glutathione therapy and glutathione precursors or dietary supplements are effective in boosting intracellular levels of glutathione.
Intravenous Glutathione Injections: Intravenous glutathione injections have been shown to produce amazing and rapid results, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Following even a single dosage of intravenous glutathione, many of the symptoms of Parkinson's disease rapidly improve, often in as little as 15 minutes.
Glutathione Precursors: In the Alzheimer's study conducted by Welsh GP, Andrew McCaddon, adding the glutathione precursor, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) to a protocol that lowered homocysteine levels by simple supplementation with B12 and folate, resulted in prompt, striking, and sustained clinical improvement in nearly all the patients. (9)
Cucurmin (turmeric):Studies have shown that the Indian curry spice, cucurmin, has neuroprotective effects because of its ability to induce the enzyme, hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which protects neurons exposed to oxidant stress. Treatment of brain cells called astrocytes, with curcumin, increases expression of HO-1 protein as well as glutathione S-transferase. (10)
Ebselen: Ebselen is a glutathione peroxidase mimic and potent synthetic antioxidant that acts as a neuroprotective agent and an inhibitor of free-radical induced apoptosis (cell death). It can protect brain cells from the neuro-toxic effects of alcohol consumption. (8)
Undenatured Whey Protein: Undenatured whey protein provides glutathione precursors, has been shown to raise intracellular glutathione levels in clinical trials, and has anecdotally been reported to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
References:1. Journal of Neurochemistry, Vol. 88, No. 3, 2004 513-531
Copyright © 2004 Priya Shah
Liquid Vitamins and Nutrition - or Pills ?
Liquid vitaminsHardly does a day pass without the liquid vitamins viruses pills debate goes on.The important overall issue is getting good nutrition through food supplements.
The Colloidal Silver Controversy
Colloidal Silver might just be a wonderful thing and here'swhy: Prokaryotic, a.k.
Can Vitamin E Cure Almost Everything?
Vitamin E is an absolutely vital nutrient in your body, but it probably can't do half the things you heard it can.What does vitamin E do? To begin, it is an antioxidant.
What is HGH?
Hormones are chemical messengers made up of amino acids and produced by the endocrine glands to be sent all over the body to stimulate certain activities. Growth, digestion, reproduction and sexual functions in the human body are all triggered by hormones.
Cortisol Blockers- After the Hype and Controversy, are there any Quality Products Still Standing?
Over the last 2 years, the link between weight gain and the stress hormone Cortisol has taken center stage. The concept was introduced, capitalized upon, and basically challenged in the legal system all within the last 2 years.
Best Vitamins to Help Keep You Fit at Forty Plus
Our bodies change as we age, and to remain vigorous, active and healthy in our middle years and beyond requires that we supply them with good nutrition and regular exercise. It's almost too simple, isn't it? However, staying faithful to a healthy lifestyle requires commitment and self-discipline, and an understanding that you are the one who must make the appropriate choices.
Beta-Glucan is an extremely potent, immune activating substance taken from the cellular walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast). The extraction is so pure that consumption of Beta-Glucan is harmless, unlike consuming large amounts of yeast.
Dietary Supplement Vitamin
Dietary Supplement Vitamin - why is it important?Dietary supplement vitamin or vitamins are very important to our health because if we do not intake enough vitamins necessary for our bodies, the dietary supplement vitamin will substitute for the shortage of the amount of vitamins in our system. Still, a good diet based on foods with high concentration of vitamins is always a better solution than supplements.
Side Effects of Fish Oil
Fish oil is oil derived from the tissues of fatty acids. Fish oil is recommended as source of Omega 3 fatty acids.
Minerals for a Normal Life
Minerals are essential nutrients that serve the body in many ways. So important in the function of the human body that insufficient supply, or even over supply, of these can lead to numerous health problems and complications not to mention a disrupted life.
Coral Calcium: The Preferred Source of Absorbable Calcium
Coral Calcium is an excellent source of readily accessible and absorbable calcium in the body. Superior 100% pure fossilized, coral calcium is harvested from above ground, meaning that no harm is done to any living coral.
The Liquid Vitamin Supplement
Not many years ago the liquid vitamin supplement was unheard of. I remember the advent of the pills years ago and later on the capsule.
Natural Human Growth Hormone: Hope or Hoax?
You may feel 30, but your body keeps reminding you you're not. You fatigue easily.
Vitamin Benefits - What You Need To Know
Parents always tell their children to take their vitamins. Every day, consumers are bombarded with vitamin advertisements, and it is common knowledge that vitamins are beneficial to the human body.
Vitamins and Their Role in Our Lives
Vitamins, like minerals, are an essential part of the function and health of the body system. While many vitamins serve individual purposes, the more common way for vitamins to function properly is as cofactors to or in partnership with other vitamins, minerals, nutrients and other substances in the body such as enzymes.
Vitamins for the Recovering Alcoholic
I have frequently heard alcoholics who are in early recovery remark that, "If this is what recovery is like, I'd rather go back to drinking." Vitamin deficiencies, particularly of the B vitamins and vitamin C, may be responsible for much of the lethargy, skin irritation, memory loss and depression experienced by people who are newly recovering from an addiction to alcohol.
Why We Do Not Sell Coral Calcium
Since coral calcium is one of he hottest products on the market for the treatment of arthritis you would think that a site that is called the Arthritis Store would sell it. So why don't we sell coral calcium.
Developing Those Elusive Bright Eyes... With Vitamins and Minerals
Vision is one of our most precious senses. Without it the world as we know it would be blank.
When Your Body Lacks Vitamins
The body needs a minimum amount of vitamins and minerals each day to remain healthy and function properly. A balanced diet normally supplies sufficient vitamins.
The History of Hyaluronic Acid Treatments
While HA has dramatically increased in popularity and use within the cosmetics community, the vast majority of people remain unaware of its unique history.Also known as hyaluronan and glycosaminoglycan, it plays a key role in both tissue hydration and lubrication.