Where Does Your Drinking Water Come From?
Have you ever thought about where your drinking water comes from? Most of us never give this question a thought. Yet, the sources of our water tell us a lot about its quality.
The Importance of Water Sources
Very early in the development of civilizations, people recognized the importance of finding reliable water sources. A clean, constant supply of safe drinking water is essential for every community. Consequently, the earliest civilizations developed near sources of clean water.
As time passed, people began to migrate and settle in areas many miles from a reliable water source. So they developed delivery systems that drew water from those distant sources. The Roman aqueducts are an excellent example of such a delivery system.
Today, people in large cities frequently depend on surface water sources, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, for their drinking water. Sometimes these sources are close to the community. At other times, water suppliers get their water from sources many miles away.
In either case, when you think about the source of your drinking water, it's important to consider the entire watershed in which the source is located. The watershed is the land area over which water flows into the river, lake, or reservoir.
In rural areas, people are more likely to drink ground water pumped from a well. These wells tap into aquifers or natural reservoirs under the earth's surface. These aquifers may be only a few miles wide, or may span the borders of many states. As with surface water, remember that activities many miles away from you may affect the quality of ground water.
Both public and private water supplies can be drawn from a variety of sources. Different sources of raw water demand different treatment methods to render it fit for human consumption.
Deep Groundwater Sources
The water emerging from some deep groundwater sources may have fallen as rain many decades or even hundreds of years ago. Soil and rock layers will naturally filter the groundwater to a high degree of clarity. Deep groundwater may emerge as springs. In places where the water does not emerge as springs, water suppliers will often bore wells to extract it.
Usually, groundwater has a very high bacteriological quality. Because the water passed through layers of soil and rock, it may also be rich in dissolved solids including carbonates and Sulfates of Calcium and Magnesium.
Depending on the strata through which the water has flowed, other ions may also be present. These could include chloride and bicarbonates. Often, water from deep sources requires special treatment to remove its iron or manganese content to make it pleasant for drinking, cooking, and laundry.
Seepage of surface water recharges these deep groundwater sources. This seepage introduces industrial, chemical, animal and human contaminants into these underground aquifers. As these contaminants merge with natural elements in the water, health threats are introduced and disinfection is required.
Shallow Groundwater Sources
While deep groundwater lays far below ground level, shallow groundwater travels in streams within a few hundred feet of ground level. Access to shallow groundwater is usually through wells or boreholes.
The bacteriological quality of these shallow sources can vary depending on the nature of the underground reservoir. A variety of soluble materials may be present including potentially toxic metals such as copper or zinc. In some places, shallow ground water sources contain unacceptably high levels of Arsenic contamination.
Upland Lakes and Reservoirs
Typically, municipalities place upland reservoirs in the headwaters of river systems, above any human habitation. They often surround them by some form of protection zone to restrict the opportunities for contamination.
Bacterial and pathogen levels are usually low, but some bacteria, protozoa and algae will be present. Where uplands are forested or are peaty, humic acids can give the water a brown color. Many upland sources have low pH which requires adjustment before the water enters the supply.
Rivers, Canals and Low-Land Reservoirs
Lowland surface waters primarily come from rain runoff. As rainwater washes the streets of our cities and filters through landfills and farmlands, it picks up a significant bacterial load. It may also contain algae, suspended solids and a variety of dissolved elements.
All water sources contribute to water contamination. The source of your water determines the kind of contaminants it carries.
While water treatment facilities neutralize most of the contaminants, some escape and end up in your drinking water. Many of these contaminants are harmless and, at most, give the water a bad taste or odor. Other pose potential health threats.
To protect yourself and your family from these potential threats, we recommend the use of a home water filtration system to assure that your drinking water is clean.
Earl Calvert is a freelance writer. His writings include Bible study curriculum materials and articles for national business magazines. As an advocate for clean drinking water, Earl designed his website on drinking water to educate the public water quality issues.
Childhood Epidemic Rises 6,000% What Can Be Learned About Autism?
The latest tallies show that over three million people in North America alone carry some type of autism diagnosis. With this increase the biggest question people are asking is why.
Fat: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly
When it comes to planning a healthy diet, fat is a complex subject. It's useful to understand some basic information.
Fat Burning Compatible Foods
Fat burning compatible foods seem to be a popular topic around the gym these days. We also hear a lot about negative calorie foods which are considered a part of fat burning compatible foods.
Food thats Good for a Healthy Heart
Here's a conundrum: While experts agree that high cholesterol and blood pressure are crucial heart disease risk factors, many people who suffer chest pain or even heart attacks have levels that are perfectly normal. This puzzle has prompted researchers to scour the body for other cardiovascular villains.
A Consumers Guide to Soy Terms
Although you may have heard about soy and all of its health benefits, you may not have figured out how to incorporate it into your diet, yet. There are so many products available; figuring out exactly what they are may seem overwhelming.
Using Calcium and Magnesium for Constipation
Calcium helps reduce constipationUsing calcium and magnesium in the right quantities can prevent or relieve constipation. They can support the health of your colon and keep you regular.
The Magic in Food: LOVE
Remember the old adage, you are what you eat? The simplest magical ritual that you can do is to cut open a fruit or vegetable and eat it while thinking of your magical intention. Below is a compilation of common foods and their metaphysical associations.
Use Food and Focus to Gain Tons of Energy for Summer
While there are many effective ways to get more energy and build your productivity, I've found it very important to pay attention to the seasons."But wait a minute," you say.
Tips for Effective Muscle Building Diets
One of the biggest mistakes many new bodybuilders make is that they don't pay attention to their muscle building diets with the same detail, desire and determination with which they pay attention to their weight training program.You constantly see people throw out numbers such as your weight training program is 85% of your results or that muscle building diets are 95% of your results.
Battling Childhood Obesity through Smart Eating
Finally, a positive solution regarding America's difficult and costly campaign to stem childhood obesity is emerging. For the thousands of children and their families who are currently battling with childhood obesity, this good news is long awaited.
The Truth About the Meat You Eat
There are so many topics to discuss which affect our health that it is hard to choose just one at a time. My motto is Unhealthy Soil = Unhealthy Plants and Animals = Unhealthy People.
What about Potassium?
Information on potassiumWhen you read about potassium and senate document report 264 you'll life should be changed forever. You're going to discover that the biggest fallacy most people aren't aware of is that if we eat a balanced diet, (the four food groups), we get all the nutrients we need to stay healthy and live a long life.
Organic Eating - Why Bother?
Originally, all foods were "organic" - grown and prepared without pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, hormones, irradiation to prevent spoilage, and microwave cooking.Our food these days, whether of vegetable or animal origin, is not only deficient in nutrients but also full of pollutants and farm chemicals.
The Four Cornerstones of Nutrition
What is nutrition? We hear so many reports today on different foods containing them, but the reporters rarely provide any context in which the informaiton can be understood. To receive the benefits of good nutrition, it is important to understand how the different components fit together.
Blueberry Picking Techniques
First of all you have to have a bucket. You will soon want to have a few with you as the berries are so good that you never get enough, especially when you start freezing them, cooking them for jams and sauces or, my favorite, putting them in the blender with various things for a morning liquid breakfast and treat.
Startling New Evidence: You Can Slow the Aging Process, Scientists Say
What if you could actually slow your rate of aging, and live healthier longer, simply by eating certain foods? U.S.
The Worse Mistakes People Make with Food
There are a number of common food mistakes that costsdearly in money, health, and time. What are the majormistakes made? What changes do you need to make? Here aresome food mistakes to avoid.
Small Changes Yield Big Benefits
You can start today - right now, even - on a road to feeling better, looking better, living longer and enjoying a far better quality of life.We're all familiar with the big steps:If you smoke, do yourself and those who love you a huge favor - STOP.
Free List of Fat Burning Foods
This free list of fat burning foods will help you make the right choices to burn off more fat than you ingest by eating them. The fat burning secret to losing weight is to eat and drink until you are full and satisfied, choosing foods that burn more calories than you consume.
Constipation Cures Exposed!
If you're suffering from constipation, you are no doubt looking for some answers to bring relief. Treatments for constipation vary with the type of constipation from which you're suffering.