The most prominent discovery the Hubble telescope is credited for was to measure Cepheid variable distances* a lot more accurately and greatly reduced our uncertainty in the value of Hubble’s constant which explains the rate of universe expansion. If you convert Hubble’s constant into inverse seconds (which is no mean feat) then inverse the derived number to attain a value in seconds, a reasonable estimate for the origin of the universe can be obtained. The telescope has produced a value of 13.7 billion years for the universe via this method.
• Cepheid Variables are stars which are critical in astronomy. The maximum irradiance of one of these stars is proportional to the period of oscillation of the brightness. This means distances can be calculated by measuring the detected light of a Cepheid variable and comparing it to the expected value as light irradiance decreases largely with distance.
The Hubble Telescope.
The Hubble Telescope was sent into orbit in 1900 and bore the name of the famous astronomer Edwin Hubble. The Telescope can detect electromagnetic radiation in the visible spectrum, near infrared and near ultraviolet. The telescope works using a series of very large mirrors to collect a large amount of light from a source, and to amplify it onto a detector, this is why in the Hubble Deep Field we see many things which were completely invisible to the naked eye. The telescope is so much more powerful than the human eye. For this reason the Hubble Telescope has taken some magnificent images of space, however as well as taking some pretty pictures it is responsible for some of the most important cosmological discoveries.