View Full Version : The BARE-Knuckle PUGILISTS


McGoorty
10-08-2011, 01:47 PM
The Champions & Big Fights of the Broughton & LPR Rules Era.This Thread Will Have Reports of the fighters and the fights from James Figg To Bob Fitzsimmons as well as trivia.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------THE NEW YORK HERALD
October 22, 1858.
"The fight of the century."
John Morrissey vs John Heenan
Prize Fighting was outlawed in the United States and
this heavyweight fight was staged across the border
from Buffalo in Canada.


THE GREAT PRIZE FIGHT
The Combat of Morrissey and Heenan
for the "Championship" of America
Quarter of a Million of Dollars Staked
on the Result
Appearence of the Champions Before and
After the Fight
MORRISSEY VICTORIOUS
ACHIEVEMENTS OF MODERN CHIVALRY.
SKETCHES OF THE COMBATANTS
THE WAY THEY WERE TRAINED.
TRIUMPH OF BRUTALITY
The fight between John Morrissey and John Heenan,
the Benicia Boy, came off Wednesday afternoon at Long
Point, Canada, between seventy and eighty miles from
Buffalo. Eleven terrific rounds were fought in twenty-
two minutes, when Morrissey was declared the victor.
A more severe fight for the time it lasted never took
place in this country. Morrissey was the favorite at one
hundred to sixty. About two thousand persons witnessed
the fight, who behaved themselves in the most or-
derly manner, and everything passed off very quietly.
Morrissey was seconded by Kelly, of Australia, and an
assistant. The Benicia Boy was seconded by Aaron
Jones, an English pugilist, and Johnny Mackey. Per-
sons from all parts of the United States and Canada
were present to witness the fight. Heenan had the best of
the fight at the commencement, but after the fifth round
Morrissey took the lead and kept it. He has improved
greatly in his style since his fight with Yankee Sullivan.

The fight is over and the battle won. Another of those
brutal exhibitions which disgrace the civilization of the
age - a relic of the barbarism of old Rome and the Mid-
dle Ages - has taken place, and the victor, wearing the
laurels of triumph, is the "observed of all observers,"
and is admired and acknowledged as the champion gladia-
tor of America. Are we at the height of progress in
civilization that we claim to be, or are we in a condition
that the laws, moral and legal, are powerless to prevent
these occasional disgraceful displays of human brutality?
In spite of the laws prohibiting prize fighting, two men
have been allowed to prepare for a contest, which might
have resulted in the death of one or the other of the par-
ties engaged, in the very face of the officers of law,
and almost in the sanctuary of justice. Pretended efforts
of the authorities were made to arrest the principals in
the affair, but which, in fact, were only a notification for
them to select a locality out of their immediate jurisdic-
tion, and which would afford greater facilities for the of-
ficers themselves to learn how matters were progressing.
The laws of this State do not tolerate prize fighting, but a
successful prize fighter seems to hold a prominent position
among the politically pious and moral of the community.

UglyPug
10-08-2011, 01:51 PM
PADDY MONAGHAN!!! JOE JOYCE and the JOYCE CLAN! Big Anthony O'Donnell and his clan!! THE IRISH TRAVELING FAMILIES!!!

UglyPug
10-08-2011, 01:55 PM
damn great read too! MORRISSEY is a BEAST!

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 02:00 PM
JAMES FIGGThe FATHER Of BOXINGJames Figg was born to a poor farming family in Thame, Oxfordshire in 1684 (or 1695, depending on which source you read). He was the youngest of seven children and grew up a tough little nut, going to local fairs and challenging the prize fighters in the booths there. He based himself at the Greyhound Inn in Cornmarket in Thame, where he could be challenged, and gave self-defence lessons. By the time he was a grown man he was 6 feet tall and around 185lbs, fit and fast, and travelled to fairs throughout the Midlands where he challenged all-comers from noon until sundown. He taught himself to fight with a short-sword, a staff and a club, and staged exhibitions of his skill at the fairs (very clever, as it avoided taking on an opponent for at least part of his day).
Gambling was an enormous part of bare-knuckle boxing (as it still is), and the Earl of Peterborough, a man who liked his sport and is gambling, happened to see Figg fight and offered to back him. Figg moved to London and set up home near Oxford Street. He opened his 'Amphitheatre' just north of Oxford Street, where he trained gentlemen in the 'art' of pugilism and self-defence. He also fought at Southwark Fair in his own booth, where he was known for taking on multiple opponents and beating them all. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- By 1720, he was openly acknowledged as London champion, and fought for money regularly, with the matches being advertised in the newspapers. There were three rounds in an organized prize-fight: the first with short-swords, the second with fists and the third with the staff (sometimes a club). There was considerable skill involved, and considerable money; it was said that sometimes as much as 3000l could be wagered on a single match. It was also pretty brutal, with the bare-knuckle fight allowing slapping, kicking, biting and gouging.
Sometime before 1723, Figg let his Amphitheatre to another boxing master and began to prize-fight on a regular basis at 'The Boarded House' behind Oxford Street, in Marylebone-Fields. It was not only men who fought there, but women and animals. Figg fought about once a month, and his opponents included Christopher Clarkson The Lancashire Soldier, Philip MacDonald The Dublin Carpenter, James Stokes Citizen of London (and husband of the famous lady-boxer Elizabeth Stokes). However, Figg's greatest opponent was Ned Sutton of Gravesend. Sutton was the only person Figg ever lost to, but he regained his title as champion on the next bout. In around 250 fights, Figg recorded only one defeat. His most talented pupil, Jack Broughton continued to run his school and was instrumental in setting the first rules of boxing in 1743.
James Figg was enormously famous during his own lifetime with many of the aristocracy attending both his school and his fights. He was a great popular hero as well, and a familiar sight around the streets of the West End. William Hogarth, who both painted his portrait and allegedly designed his trade card (in the gallery) declared him 'the master of the noble science of defence'. There was one opponent Figg could not defend himself against however, and in early December, 1734 at the end of an astonishing career, this notice appeared in the papers:--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- "Last Saturday there was a Trial of Skill between the unconquered Hero, Death, on the one side and till then the unconquered Hero Mr James Figg, the famous Prize-Fighter and Master of the Noble Science of Defence on the other: The Battle was most obstinately fought on both sides, but at last the former obtained an Entire Victory and the latter tho' he was obliged to submit to a Superior Foe yet fearless and with Disdain he retired and that Evening expired at his house in Oxford Road". :boxing:

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 02:07 PM
Undated (Prior to 1719)
-Figg was well-known as a skilled with swordsman and cudgel fighter;
When he opened a fighting school, he devoted most of his time to
boxing; Over time, he was recognized as the best boxer in England

1719
Sep 18 -Figg claimed the Championship of England and opened
an amphitheatre on Oxford Road in London, Eng

1720-1723
Timothy Buck London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Tom Stokes London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Bill Flanders London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Chris Clarkson London, Eng W
-Championship of England

1724
Ned Sutton Gravesend, Eng L
-Some sources report Championship of England

1725
May 31 Ned Sutton London, Eng W
-Some sources report Championship of England

1727
May 23 Ned Sutton London, Eng (1:00:00) EX
May 30 Ned Sutton London, Eng (1:00:00) EX
Jun 6 Ned Sutton London, Eng (10:00) W 8
-Championship of England

1730
-Figg announced his retirement from the ring and
relinquished the Championship of England

1733
May 6 Jack Broughton London, Eng EX

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 02:20 PM
info@famous-fights.com

Buy Famous Fights
Famous Fights on eBay



Boxing biographies
Antiquities of the Prize Ring
Yesterday's Papers


Bob Fitzsimmons
Daniel Mendoza
Jem Mace
Jack Broughton
Jim Jeffries
John L. Sullivan
Jim Corbett
Famous Fights Home
JACK BROUGHTON
Pugilist John (Jack) Broughton***8217;s portrait is taken from the first issue of Famous Fights.
Born in 1703, dying in 1789, he is considered the founder of the British Prize Ring.

We learn that, ***8220;John Broughton, the waterman, became pugilistic Champion of England, and soon made fist-fighting the most popular sport in the kingdom. He was a big man, standing over 5 ft. 11 in., and weighing between 14 st. and 15 st. [196-210 pounds]. His fine, commanding, athletic figure, his keen, bright eyes and bold, intelligent face gave him a most prepossessing appearance.***8221;

Not only was he a big man, but he could move too, according to the paper, ***8220;For a big man he was remarkably active, and used both hands with lightning rapidity.***8221;

He was a sports superstar in England receiving patronage from Royalty, enabling him to set up a boxing amphitheatre in Hanway Street, a road which still exists today just off Oxford Street, London. Here Broughton***8217;s team would put on boxing exhibitions for the general public. According to Famous Fights Broughton flourished.

Broughton created a boxing school where he gave private lessons. The first mention of the use of boxing gloves (mufflers) appeared in an advert for boxing lessons placed by Broughton in the Daily Advertiser February 1747. Famous Fights gives the advert in full: ***8220;Mr. Broughton proposes, with proper assistance, to open an academy at his house in the Haymarket, for the instruction of those who are willing to be instructed in the mystery of boxing, where the whole theory and practise of that truly British art, with all the various stops, blows, cross-buttocks, etc, incident to combatants, will be fully taught and explained; and that persons of quality and distinction may not be debarred from entering into a course of these lectures, they will be given with the utmost tenderness and regard to the delicacy of the frame and constitution of the pupil; for which reason mufflers are provided, that will effectively secure them from the inconveniencing of black eyes, broken jaws, and bloody noses.***8221;

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 02:23 PM
1725
-Broughton began his career with some turn-up matches in Bristol, Eng

Sep an unnamed opponent W 10

1726-1732
-Broughton defeated a number of opponents and became a favorite of James Figg

1733
May 6 James Figg London, Eng EX 6

1734
Tom Pipes W
-Some sources indicate possible Championship of England contest
Tom Pipes W
-Some sources indicate possible Championship of England contest

1734-1736
Bill Gretting W
-Some sources indicate possible Championship of England contest
Bill Gretting W
-Some sources indicate possible Championship of England contest

1736
George Taylor London, Eng (20:00) W
-Championship of England

1737-1740
"Buckhorse" John Smith London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Prince Boswell London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Will Willis London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Sailor Field London, Eng W
-Championship of England

1741
Apr 24 George Stevenson London, Eng (35:00) W 4
-Championship of England;
Stevenson died

May -Broughton announced his retirement from the ring (only to return later)

1743
Mar 10 -Broughton opened the amphitheatre, Oxford Street, London, Eng
Mar 13 -Broughton announced his comeback and reclaimed the Championship of England
Aug 16 -Brought published his famous "Rules of the Ring"

1744-1746
Chicken Harris London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Jack James London, Eng W
-Championship of England
Tom Smallwood London, Eng W
-Championship of England

1747
Feb -Broughton invented mufflers (boxing gloves) used in sparring contests

1750
Apr 10 Jack Slack London, Eng (14:00) L 4
-Championship of England;
Some sources report 4/11/1747

1767
Apr an unnamed opponent Lambeth, Eng (15:00) W

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 02:32 PM
damn great read too! MORRISSEY is a BEAST!
ALLOW Me................................................ .................................................. .......... POETRY OF THE PRIZE RING - Three or four weeks ago we
published the bellicose ballad of some British bard, predicting
the utter defeat of John Heenan in the fight for the champion-
ship. Happily for our side, the friends of the champion of
England have no monopoly of the muses.

HEENAN, IRELAND'S PRIDE


I am a bold American,
John Heenan is my name,
To fight Tom Sayers, of high renown,
Three thousand miles I came,
My age is five and twenty,
My height is six feet two,
And born of Irish parents,
Of metal bold and true.

So, now, my lads, I'll bodly strive,
To gain myself a name,
To win and wear the English belt,
Three thousand miles I came.

So cheer up, you lads of Erin's Isle,
And never be dismayed,
I'm the son of a true-bred Irishman,
And never was afraid;
I'll show these English boasting lads,
Now I've come over here,
How Donnelly conquered Cooper
In the county of Kildare.

On the sixteenth day of April,
Which most of you know,
I'll teach brave Tommy how to box,
When with him toe to toe;
If fortune should but favor me,
Which I have but little doubt,
I'll silence all those boasting lads,
And stop the lion's mouth.

The stars and stripes of America,
Shall never be put to shame;
Right manfully I'll stive my boys,
The colors of Old England,
Which long have borne the sway,
And British boxing both must fade,
Upon that glorious day.

It's not for brave Tom's gold, my boys,
That I've come here to fight,
For all his hard-won honors,
Have no pleasure in my sight;
But to gain a lasting name, my boys,
And let Old England know,
It's a pleasure in J. Heenan's breast,
To help a fallen foe.

In a twenty-four rope ring, my boys,
Before my noble foe,
With youth and strength upon my side,
I cannot call a "go;"
I've a giant's power in my arn,
Brave Tom he must give in,
And as friendly as I enter it,
So I will leave the ring.

So now my song is ended,
I've nothing more to say,
But I'm sure to beat your champion,
Should I receive fair play;
And if he'll sail away with me,
Across the Atlantic sea,
I'll try to heal the wound I've made,
Through his lost victory.

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 03:14 PM
Jack Slack
(the "Norfolk Butcher") 1743
-Slack defeated three local opponents and was recognized
as the Champion of Norfolk

1744
Jun 24 Daniel Smith East Anglia, Eng (20:00) W
Nov 12 Daniel Smith Framlingham, Eng (45:00) W 18

1745-1747
-Slack defeated several opponents in provincial rings
Tom Auger New Buckingham, Eng SCH
-This fight was scheduled; The outcome is not known

1748
-Slack sold his butcher shop to his brother and moved to London, Eng
Oct 12 Ned Hunt London, Eng (40:00) W 8

1749
Feb 9 Sailor Field London, Eng (1:32:00) W
-Slack opened a School of Boxing in Bristol, Eng
John James (4:00) W

1750
Jan 31 George Taylor London, Eng (25:00) L 17
Apr 11 Jack Broughton London, Eng (14:00) W 4
-Championship of England;
Some sources report 5/10/50

1751
Jul 29 Monsieur Petit Harlston, Eng (25:00) W 7
-Championship of England;
Some sources report 1754

1755
Mar 13 Cornelius Harris Bristol, Eng (20:00) W 5
-Championship of England

1759
Oct 20 Jack Moreton Acton Wells, Eng (35:00) W
-Championship of England

1760
Jun 17 William Stevens London, Eng (27:00) L
-Championship of England

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 03:21 PM
DANIEL MENDOZA

Born: July 5, 1764 in Aldgate, London, England
Died: September 3, 1836

Daniel Mendoza was the first Jewish prize-fighter to become a champion. Though he stood only 5'7" and weighed 160 pounds, Mendoza was England***8217;s sixteenth Heavyweight Champion from 1792 to 1795. Always proud of his heritage, he billed himself as Mendoza the Jew.

He is the father of scientific boxing. At a time when the sport of boxing consisted primarily of barehanded slugging, Mendoza introduced the concept of defense. He developed the guard, the straight left, and made use of side*stepping tactics. This new strategy, the Mendoza School, also referred to as the Jewish School, was criticized in some circles as cowardly. But it permitted Mendoza to fully capitalize on his small stature, speed, and punching power.

His first recorded prizefight was a knockout of an opponent, known as Harry the Coalheaver, whom he dispatched in 40 rounds. A victory in his first professional fight in 1787 won him the patronage of the Prince of Wales (later George IV), the first boxer to earn this honor. His acceptance by British royalty (he was the first Jew ever to speak to England***8217;s King George III) helped elevate the position of the Jew in English society and stem a vicious tide of anti-Semitism that many Englishmen read into Shakespeare***8217;s characterization of Shylock in his play The Merchant of Venice.

Mendoza had a series of storied matches against rival Richard Humphries, one each in 1788, 1789, and 1790. He lost the first battle in 29 rounds but won the latter pair in 52 and 15
Daniel Mendoza, ***8220;Mendoza the Jew***8221; rounds. He laid claim to
the English boxing title in 1791 when the prevailing champion, Benjamin Brain, retired. Another top English boxer, Bill Warr, contested Mendoza***8217;s claim. In May 1792, the two met to settle the matter in Croydon, England. Mendoza was victorious in 23 rounds. Warr and Mendoza met again in November 1794, and this time it took the champion only 15 minutes to dispose of the challenger.

Mendoza, a descendant of Spanish Marranos (Jews coerced into conversion to Christianity) who had lived in London for nearly a century, became such a popular figure in England that songs were written about him, and his name appeared in scripts of numerous plays. His personal appearances would fill theaters, portraits of him and his fights were popular subjects for artists, and commemorative medals were struck in his honor.

Daniel Mendoza was one of the inaugural group elected in 1954 to the Boxing Hall of Fame and of the inaugural class of the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 03:21 PM
DANIEL MENDOZA

Born: July 5, 1764 in Aldgate, London, England
Died: September 3, 1836

Daniel Mendoza was the first Jewish prize-fighter to become a champion. Though he stood only 5'7" and weighed 160 pounds, Mendoza was England’s sixteenth Heavyweight Champion from 1792 to 1795. Always proud of his heritage, he billed himself as Mendoza the Jew.

He is the father of scientific boxing. At a time when the sport of boxing consisted primarily of barehanded slugging, Mendoza introduced the concept of defense. He developed the guard, the straight left, and made use of side*stepping tactics. This new strategy, the Mendoza School, also referred to as the Jewish School, was criticized in some circles as cowardly. But it permitted Mendoza to fully capitalize on his small stature, speed, and punching power.

His first recorded prizefight was a knockout of an opponent, known as Harry the Coalheaver, whom he dispatched in 40 rounds. A victory in his first professional fight in 1787 won him the patronage of the Prince of Wales (later George IV), the first boxer to earn this honor. His acceptance by British royalty (he was the first Jew ever to speak to England’s King George III) helped elevate the position of the Jew in English society and stem a vicious tide of anti-Semitism that many Englishmen read into Shakespeare’s characterization of Shylock in his play The Merchant of Venice.

Mendoza had a series of storied matches against rival Richard Humphries, one each in 1788, 1789, and 1790. He lost the first battle in 29 rounds but won the latter pair in 52 and 15
Daniel Mendoza, “Mendoza the Jew” rounds. He laid claim to
the English boxing title in 1791 when the prevailing champion, Benjamin Brain, retired. Another top English boxer, Bill Warr, contested Mendoza’s claim. In May 1792, the two met to settle the matter in Croydon, England. Mendoza was victorious in 23 rounds. Warr and Mendoza met again in November 1794, and this time it took the champion only 15 minutes to dispose of the challenger.

Mendoza, a descendant of Spanish Marranos (Jews coerced into conversion to Christianity) who had lived in London for nearly a century, became such a popular figure in England that songs were written about him, and his name appeared in scripts of numerous plays. His personal appearances would fill theaters, portraits of him and his fights were popular subjects for artists, and commemorative medals were struck in his honor.

Daniel Mendoza was one of the inaugural group elected in 1954 to the Boxing Hall of Fame and of the inaugural class of the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990.

McGoorty
10-08-2011, 03:23 PM
Daniel Mendoza's Record--- 1780-1782
Tom Wilson W
John Horn W
Harry Davis, the Coalheaver W
Thomas Monk W
John Hind W
William Moore W
John Williams W
George Cannon W
Al Fuller W
Tom Spencer W
John Knight W
George McKenzie W
William Taylor W
John Baintree W
George Hoast W
John Hall W
George Barry W
William Cannon W
Bill Move W
George Smith W
1783
Jul Tom Tyne Leytonstone, Eng (1:15:00) L
-Lightweight Championship of England
John Matthews Kilburn Wells, Eng (2:00:00) W
Richard Dennis Lock Fields, Eng (30:00) W

1784
Mar Tom Tyne Croydon, Eng (1:00:00) W
-Welterweight Championship of England
William Bryan Islington, Eng (30:00) D
Harry Davis, the Coalheaver Mile End, Eng (1:50:00) W 40

1785
William Nelson London, Eng (1:15:00) W

1787
Apr 17 Sam Martin Barnet, Eng (20:00) W 18
-Some sources report 31:00
Sep 9 Richard Humphries ****, Eng L

1788
Jan 9 Richard Humphries Odiham, Eng (29:00) L
-Middleweight Championship of England

1789
May 6 Richard Humphries Stilton, Eng (1:10:00) WF 65
-Middleweight Championship of England

1790
-Mendoza claimed the Championship of England
following the retirement of Tom Johnson

Sep 29 Richard Humphries Doncaster, Eng (1:03:00) W 72
-Middleweight Championship of England

1791
Aug 2 Squire Fitzgerald Dublin, Ire (20:00) W
-Some sources report 26:00

1792
May 14 Bill Warr Smitham Bottom, Eng (1:16:00) W 23
-Middleweight Championship of England

1794
Mar William Hooper SCH
-This fight was scheduled but not held
Nov 12 Bill Warr Bexley Common, Eng (15:00) W 5
-Championship of England

1795
Apr 15 John Jackson Hornchurch, Eng (10:30) L 9
-Championship of England

1806
Mar 21 Harry Lee Grimstead Green, Eng (1:10:00) W 53
-Some sources report 1:07:00

1820
Jul 4 Tom Owen Banstead Downs, Eng (15:00) L 12

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:26 AM
Boxing in the mid-1700s

Boxing at the time was very different from what it is today. Although Jack Broughton had introduced new rules in the mid-1700s, making the sport less brutal than it had been in the past, boxing was still not well regulated. The new rules banned hitting a man when he was down, grabbing him by the breeches or below the waist, and kicking, but they did not prohibit hair-pulling, ear-pulling, holding-and-hitting, or wrestling. A favorite tactic was to throw the opponent with a hip lock or to trip him, and then "accidentally" fall on him, smashing a knee or elbow into his rib or face.

Men fought bare-knuckled, without gloves, and a round lasted until one punched or threw the other to the ground or to his knees. Between rounds, they had 30 seconds of rest, after which they had to be "at the scratch" and ready to fight. If a man was not standing up and ready, he lost. Fighters had "seconds," or friends who would help them up if need be. Usually, if a second came in, this meant that the boxer could not stand without help and he would then lose. During fights, boxers usually bled, and spectators often bet on who would bleed first and how soon it would happen. Occasionally, boxers were killed in the ring, but authorities usually did not prosecute the killer.



Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/daniel-mendoza#ixzz1aIKYh8Wm

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:29 AM
More About DANIEL MENDOZABegan His Boxing Career

After Mendoza's bar mitzvah, at the age of 13, he wanted to become a glazier or glass cutter. However, he lost his job when he beat the son of the man he was apprenticed to in a fight. After this, he found work in a fruit and vegetable shop and then in a tea shop, where he beat up a customer who was threatening the owner. A crowd gathered to watch this fight. One of the spectators was a famous boxer, Richard Humphreys, known as "The Gentleman Boxer." Humphreys was so impressed with Mendoza's fighting ability that he offered to be his second in the fight.

Word got around that a new fighter had appeared and, a week later, Mendoza was set up to fight a professional boxer. He won the fight, was paid five guineas, and received the nickname "The Star of Israel." Mendoza soon got a job in a tobacco shop, but could not stop getting into fights with customers. More than physical fights, he saw these disputes as battles against injustice, prejudice, and brutality. Mendoza believed he was justified in defending himself.

In 1790, Mendoza won his first professional fight. This attracted the attention of the Prince of Wales, who became his patron. He was the first boxer to have royal patronage and, because of this favorable attention from royalty, helped to change attitudes toward Jewish people in English society. Proudly, he called himself "Mendoza the Jew."

Christina Hale noted in English Sports and Pastimes, "Prize-fighters like Mendoza, Cribb, Belcher, and Gregson were national heroes; when Mendoza defeated Martin in 1787 the enthusiasm of the crowd broke all bounds, and the victor was brought back to London by a vast horde of jubilant supporters who carried lighted torches and sang 'See the Conquering Hero Comes' all the way home."

Mendoza's wife, however, was not happy with his constant fighting. He promised her he would give up the sport, but only if he could first fight his most hated rival. Surprisingly, that rival was Richard Humphreys, the same man who had gotten him involved in the sport.

Introduced "Scientific" Boxing Methods

Mendoza was the lightest heavyweight boxer in history: he weighed only 160 pounds and was 5 feet, 7 inches tall. If he were alive today, he would be considered a middleweight, but his chest was enormous and he always fought men much bigger than he was, and won. After getting hurt a few times, Mendoza came up with some new boxing techniques to protect himself from punches, such as sidestepping and hitting with a straight left. These methods, in which a fighter used his speed and foot movement, not just his brute strength, were more "scientific" than earlier boxing methods. When Mendoza introduced them, some spectators claimed that he was not punching away in a manly fashion, but was retreating and running away. Soon, however, Mendoza's techniques were admired and copied by other boxers.

Mendoza tested his new techniques in the fight against Humphreys on January 9, 1788 at Odiham in Hampshire. Many Jewish people, proud of their own, bet on his success. They lost when Humphreys beat Mendoza in 15 minutes. A rematch was held on May 6, 1789, at Stilton. Almost 3,000 people showed up for this fight, which Mendoza won. His fame increased. His name was mentioned in popular plays and songs were written about his win.

Boxing was extremely popular in Britain, and was enjoyed by all social classes. The prime minister attended fights regularly, as did the writers Jonathan Swift and Horace Walpole. Many famous artists drew and painted fights. Charles Dickens was also a regular fight spectator. When Mendoza fought Humphreys, a commemorative mug was produced depicting the fight. Because boxing was so fashionable, Mendoza held many public exhibitions to teach boxing to London society men. Eventually, he was making three theater appearances each week to demonstrate boxing, making 50 pounds for each appearance - quite a large sum at the time.

Became Heavyweight Champion

Humphreys fought Mendoza on September 29, 1790, and Mendoza won again. In 1794, he defeated the current English and world champion, Bill Warr, at Bexley Common, becoming the sixteenth English and world heavyweight champion. He held this title until April 15, 1795, when John Jackson defeated him by using a tactic that would be considered unfair now: he grabbed a handful of Mendoza's long hair, held him, and beat him senseless in the ninth round. Jackson's own head was shaved, so other boxers could not play this dirty trick on him.

Despite this defeat, Mendoza kept fighting. On March 23, 1796, he fought 53 rounds with Harry Lee at Grimsted-Green in Kent, and won. On July 4, 1820, he fought Tom Owen at Barnstead Downs, but lost in the 12th round. According to Robert Slater in Great Jews in Sports, an anonymous poet of the time lamented, "Is this Mendoza? - this the Jew of whom my fancy cherished so beautiful a waking dream, a vision which has perished?"

Taught and Wrote About His Sport

In 1820, according to Slater, Mendoza said, "I think I have a right to call myself the father of the science [of boxing], for it is well known that prize fighting lay dormant for several years. It was myself and Humphreys who revived it in our three contests for supremacy, and the science of pugilism has been patronized ever since."

Mendoza's most famous move, besides his general agility, courage, and skill, was his straight left. He traveled throughout England demonstrating this move and his other "scientific" methods of boxing. Mendoza wrote two books on boxing, The Art of Boxing (1789) and The Memoirs of the Life of Daniel Mendoza (1816). According to Mangan, he wrote in The Art of Boxing that fighters should hit opponents "on the eye brows, on the bridge of the nose, on the temple arteries, beneath the left ear, under the short ribs, or in the kidneys." Hitting the kidneys "deprives the person struck of his breath, occasions an instant discharge of urine, puts him in the greatest torture and renders him for some time a cripple."

Despite these books and his success in boxing, Mendoza ended up in debtors' prison. He then held a series of odd jobs. Mendoza worked as a boxing teacher and did some theatrical touring. He was also a recruiting sergeant, process server, and pub-keeper. When he died in London on September 3, 1836, Mendoza left his wife and 11 children penniless.



Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/daniel-mendoza#ixzz1aIL4thEw

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:36 AM
200 years ago, without gloves
The bareknuckle war: American Thomas Molineaux vs. Englishman Tom Tough

By Christopher James Shelton
Historian for The Boxing Amusement Park

Sporting Magazine (February, 1804)
***8220;The town has never been for these many years to be so full of amateurs and patronizers as it is at present ... They caused it to be published against the fighting squad, that a purse of twenty guineas would be ready in a few days for any two heroes of the fist to fight for, who, on due examination, should be considered as qualified to engage. Among the numerous candidates on the occasion, Tom Blake, alias Tom Tough, and Jack Holmes, a Knightsbridge coachmen, were selected. These men, though not mentioned of late in the fighting world, were nevertheless considered to be in the front rank of pugilists. The Coachman acquired great celebrity from a terrible battle which he fought in Harley Fields, about twelve years ago, which he won, after an hour***8217;s severe contest. As for Tom Tough, fighting has been his trade for three years past; during which time he has seen a little service on board one of His Majesty***8217;s ships***8230;. An immense crowd had assembled, anxiously waiting for the arrival of the combatants, who were prevented from meeting at the time appointed, in consequence of receiving information that the owner of the field had sent for the Bow Street Officers, to clear the ground, and that they may be shortly expected. A consultation was therefore held amongst the subscribers, and it was agreed that the Champions should adjourn to Wilsden Green***8230;. They produced one of the best fought battles that has taken place for upwards of twenty years, not excepting the celebrated and memorable battle fought between Big Ben (Brain) and (Tom) Johnson***8230;. The Second to the Seventh Round inclusive ***8211; consisted of the most severe hitting we ever witnessed. During the time, neither of the combatants tried to evade the other***8217;s blows, but stood up manfully, and fought with desperation***8230;. When on the ground together, Tom (Tough) would often pat the Coachman***8217;s cheek and say, ***8216;thou art a good fellow, but must be beat***8217;.***8221;


ROUNDS 1-11: Holmes holds the early advantage as he lands the first knockdown blow. He held an advantage through the early rounds. It was an offensive battle with no defense. Tom Tough had come back from 3-2 odds against after eight rounds. ***8220;At the commencement of each round there was no shifting, no attempt at closing, or endeavors to throw each other down, but immediately on setting to one put in a blow, which was returned and manfully supported both right and left, until a hit brought one or other down.***8221;***8230;. Tom Tough had scored three knockdowns in a row and now held 4-1 betting odds in his favor.

ROUND 17: Holmes scored two quick knockdowns before Tom Tough could set. A give and take exchange of punches ensue that evens the bout.

ROUND 19: A slugfest from both pugilists.

ROUND 26: Tom Tough has received many body blows, but appears to hold an advantage. ***8220;Never was applause more liberally and disinterestedly bestowed upon any pugilists, their exertions were far above the usual display of boxers.***8221;

ROUND 27: Jack Holmes clobbers Tom Tough with a punch that snaps his head as he collapses to the ground.

ROUND 28: The bout has turned around once again. Holmes lands a hard blow to the face/nose of Tom Tough and spun his head completely around. Tom Tough attempts to counter punch but instead wobbles and falls to the ground from exhaustion. As he falls awkwardly to the ground Tom Tough twists his knee. ***8230; Holmes holds a 3-1 betting odds advantage.

The fight appears to be over. Tom Tough cannot stand. His seconds have told him it is over and he must concede. Tom Tough lives up to his nickname as he refuses. All bets are off at the sad spectacle of this gimp warrior unable to walk while insisting that he would continue.

ROUND 29: Tom Tough reverts to a defensive pugilist due to circumstances. He now sets and waits for his opponent to step forward. Jack Holmes obliges as Tom Tough knocks him to the ground with a punch to head. The spectators roar their approval at the unlikely, fluke knockdown but are content that the great battle will continue***8230;. Holmes holds a 10-1 betting odds advantage.

ROUND 50: ***8220;Poor Holmes***8217;s face was now rendered perfectly unintelligible, not a single feature could be traced.***8221;***8230;. The betting odds have returned in Tom Tough***8217;s favor in this offensive battle of attrition.

ROUND 61: ***8220;For though (Holmes) struggled hard for superiority the remaining Rounds, to the Sixtieth, (which was the last) he failed in his attempt; but the Coachman***8217;s defeat was considered more glorious by the amateurs, than any victory that has occurred for many a day.***8221;

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:40 AM
TOM TOUGHIt is tempting to think of Tom Blake as ‘old fashioned’, except his style was not similar to influential English Champion, James Figg (1719-30), or the terrific Grecian Olympians of 600-300 B.C., but perhaps a slightly less gory version of the Roman pugilists of 100 B.C. – 100 A.D. Tom Blake, renaming himself Tom Tough, did not believe in fancy pugilist ‘science’ that was the rage of English literary sports enthusiasts. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tom Tough, a Navy veteran who had pursued pugilist greatness while in his early 30’s, preferred to stand in front of an opponent and exchange punches. Tom Tough’s only ‘science’ might be to wreak havoc with body punches, an energy tiring technique, but he did not wrestle (a legitimate and legal strategy), or back away from an opponent. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- The name ‘Tom Tough’ suggests an entertainment value for spectators and media. One future day, obscure and forgotten, he would once again be Tom Blake, the victim of a devastating stroke, whether through genetics or the head pounding received through pugilism, stricken as quadriplegic while unable to feed or clothe himself, walk, stand or protect his basic dignity. But for most of the decade, 1801-1810, he was a major player, as both pugilist and corner man for others. Tom Blake must have seemed too ordinary a name, regardless of talent, thus ‘Tom Tough’ was born.

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:46 AM
TOM CRIBB Vs TOM TOUGHSporting Magazine (February, 1805):
“A pitched battle was fought at Blackheath for a purse of forty guineas between Tom (Tough) and (Tom Cribb), well known pugilists. (Cribb) has fought many successful battles, and since he beat Maddox last month he has been accounted the British Champion…. The parties have been a month in training, and it was not known until a late hour on Thursday night when and where the fight would take place…. At eleven o’clock the Champions entered, attended by their seconds; for (Cribb), Richard the Black (Bill Richmond) and Joe Norton; and (Tom Tough), Dick Hall and Webb. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Bets were nearly level, though the odds were in favor of (Cribb)…. At setting-to, the Champions met each other eagerly, and some very hard blows were struck on both sides…. During a quarter of an hour there was no variation in the bets…. (Cribb), however, was much the longest reached, and it was only when (Tom Tough) could get within his guard that he was successful. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- The fight continued nearly equal until they had fought upwards of an hour, when (Tom Tough) appeared fatigued…. The fight continued in favour of (Cribb) until within two rounds of its termination, when (Tom Tough) used all his efforts and gave his opponent some clean, straight hits about the head. (Cribb), however, rallied, but (Tom Tough) recovered and returned the rally, in doing which he over-reached himself, and (Cribb) gave him a cross-buttock. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- (Tom Tough) fought two rounds after to disadvantage, when he reluctantly resigned the contest, being unable to stand on his legs…. The battle lasted one hour and forty minutes…. Among the pugilists (present) were: Belcher, Ward, Pittoon, Bourke, Wood, Mendoza, Holmes, Maddox…. From (Cribb)’s superior strength and knowledge of boxing he may safely be ranked the Champion of the day.”

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:47 AM
By Christopher James Shelton
English Ballad of Jack Holmes versus Tom Tough (1805)
A FIG for compassionate bowels!
Come all who are rugged and rough;
For a knight of the whip and the rowels,
Jack Holmes is to fight with Tom Tough.
Now boys, they***8217;ve set to! With what cunning
They shift ***8211; offer battle ***8211; step back!
Come, go it! I hate that there funning:
So, damn it, Jack hit him a crack.
Well said, my boy, that was a plumper;
Tom***8217;s down, like a lump of old lead:
That Coachman, by jove, is a thumper;
But Tom has the pluck and the head.
Tom licks him, I***8217;ll lay you a copper;
For Tom will fight on till he dies:
There, my boy that was a chopper!
But t***8217;other has bung***8217;d up his eye.
Another good round! And another!
Another! Another! Encore!
Another, still better! Another!
I ne***8217;er see***8217;d such fighting before.
Jack***8217;s done! And the sailor is victor:
Jack***8217;s beat, but he won***8217;t say ***8211; ***8220;Give in.***8221;
He ***8216;as prettily painted Tom***8217;s picture
And gi***8217;en him a well lather***8217;d skin.
So, huzza for the science of boxing!
It keeps up our courage I know;
And if the French here sound their tocsin,
We***8217;ll give them a clean knock-down blow.
It is tempting to think of Tom Blake as ***8216;old fashioned***8217;, except his style was not similar to influential English Champion, Jack Broughton (1730-50), or the terrific Grecian Olympians of 600-300 B.C., but perhaps a slightly less gory version of the Roman pugilists of 100 B.C. ***8211; 100 A.D. Tom Blake, renaming himself Tom Tough, did not believe in fancy pugilist ***8216;science***8217; that was the rage of English literary sports enthusiasts. Tom Tough, a Navy veteran who had pursued pugilist greatness while in his early 30***8217;s, preferred to stand in front of an opponent and exchange punches. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tom Tough***8217;s only ***8216;science***8217; might be to wreak havoc with body punches, an energy tiring technique, but he did not wrestle (a legitimate and legal strategy), or back away from an opponent. The name ***8216;Tom Tough***8217; suggests an entertainment value for spectators and media. One future day, obscure and forgotten, he would once again be Tom Blake, the victim of a devastating stroke, whether through genetics or the head pounding received through pugilism, stricken as quadriplegic while unable to feed or clothe himself, walk, stand or protect his basic dignity. But for most of the decade, 1801-1810, he was a major player, as both pugilist and corner man for others. Tom Blake must have seemed too ordinary a name, regardless of talent, thus ***8216;Tom Tough***8217; was born.

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:50 AM
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/SLAmolineaux.JPGTOM MOLINEAUXTom Molineaux was born a slave in Virginia in 1784. Trained by his father, Zachary Molineaux, he boxed with other slaves in order to entertain plantation owners. His owner won $100,000 by betting on Molineaux and as a result was granted his freedom and a payment of $500.

Molineaux moved to New York but after discovering he could make more money fighting in England he decided to get a job as a deckhand on a boat sailing for Liverpool. In his first fight in England took place against Tom Blake on 21st August, 1810. Molineaux won by knocking out Blake in the 8th round.

In December, 1810, Molineaux fought Tom Cribb at Copthorne, near East Grinstead, for the heavyweight championship of England. After 19 rounds Molineaux had Cribb in trouble on the ropes. Cribb's supporters now entered the ring and during the scrimmage Molineaux had one of his fingers broken. Molineaux continued to fight and in the 28th round appeared to knock out Cribb. However, his seconds complained that Molineaux had been hiding lead bullets in his fists. While this accusation was being disproved, Cribb recovered and was able to continue. Molineaux still remained favourite to win but unluckily he slipped and hit his head on one of the ring posts. He fought on but by the 39th round he was unable to defend himself and Cribb was declared the winner.The return fight took place at Thistleton Gap in Leicestershire on 28th September, 1811. A record 15,000 people watched the fight. In the sixth round Cribb hit Molineaux with a low blow. He never fully recovered from this punch and in the ninth round Cribb broke his jaw. Two rounds later Cribb knocked out Molineaux.

After making a full recovery Molineaux fought and defeated Jack Carter in 1813. This was followed by a victory over Bill Fuller. However, his boxing career came to an end in 1815 when he lost to George Cooper, a fighter trained by the former black boxer, Bill Richmond.

Tom Molineaux died penniless in Dublin, Ireland, in 1818.

McGoorty
10-09-2011, 11:57 AM
A Black American arrives in England, 1808-10, and let us pretend no documentation exists. If he was born, 1770-74, what is his State of birth and life? There is a misperception amongst most Americans of 2010, that all 19th century Blacks were slaves. If I was asked the most likely location, with no documentation, of a Black American***8217;s arrival in England, 1808-10, I would say: ***8220;Number one is Massachusetts. I am not sure of number two. Perhaps a smaller Northeastern State such as Delaware, Rhode Island or Vermont could be a possibility. Maine is a smaller colony and State, but did not have slavery. New York or Maryland might be next because there were strong abolitionist groups in those regions.***8221; Which is the least likely State? I would say, ***8220;Virginia, number one, and South Carolina, number two.***8221; George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison owned slaves. John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton did not own slaves. Washington, Jefferson, Madison were from Virginia, Virginia, Virginia. Adams, Franklin, Hamilton were from Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York.

The most ridiculous historical listing is: ***8220;Tom Molineaux from Virginia, who won freedom from slavery as a pugilist, along with $500, because his generous White owner claimed a $100,000 gambling profit. Molineaux (despite no documented proof) fought more battles in New York and arrived in England as an experienced fighter.***8221; Even had Molineaux been from Virginia common sense should dictate that he was more likely amongst the free Black population rather than a slave. The name ***8216;Molineaux***8217; was an important part of 18th century Massachusetts and Maryland history, but not Virginia. The Virginia Historical Society utilizes four sources to claim that ***8216;Molyneaux***8217; was from Virginia. These are brief biographical sketches that concentrate mostly on the December, 1810 bout against Cribb. Molineaux published a couple letters in the newspaper during his lifetime. None of these sources specialize in American history, or Thomas Molineaux the individual, and claim (with no source as proof) that the man did not know how to spell his own name.The story that emerged within Molineaux***8217;s lifetime, via England, continues to have a greater likelihood than the American stories decades after his death. Spirit Of The Press, Philadelphia (8/1/1811): ***8220;(Molineaux) is a stout Negro, imported from Maryland.***8221; Sporting Magazine (October, 1811): ***8220;A Baltimore man.***8221; Pancratia (1812): ***8220;A native of the State of New York.***8221; There was prizefighting in New York, and the surrounding States, but these were mostly minors or military persons, much like England. Those pugilists developed a certain body shape. The early story of Molineaux, in his lifetime, was of an athlete, but not a pugilist, who switched to boxing when that promised an opportunity for money, fame, women, success. Pierce Egan: ***8220;The anatomist and artist, in contemplating its various beauties, derived pleasure from this uncommon subject and fine body.

Marchegiano
10-10-2011, 09:46 AM
hmmm, Awesome of course. I can't wait to get back into the mid 1800's. still there's lots to cover. Yankee Sullivan/James Ambrose/Frank Murray one of the baddest dude to ever live. MW & HW champ. Beat the living **** out of "Old Smoke" and walk off too bad ass for a belt any more. I can't remember right off which part is in my sig, Fisticuffs by Primus, but it's all Yankee.

Morrissey Lost to a fella named Poole. Then he killed Poole....gangster. Tom Hyer was probably the baddest guy around at that time though....John saw what the butcher did to James and wasn't about to have none.....gangster.

McGoorty
10-10-2011, 12:03 PM
hmmm, Awesome of course. I can't wait to get back into the mid 1800's. still there's lots to cover. Yankee Sullivan/James Ambrose/Frank Murray one of the baddest dude to ever live. MW & HW champ. Beat the living **** out of "Old Smoke" and walk off too bad ass for a belt any more. I can't remember right off which part is in my sig, Fisticuffs by Primus, but it's all Yankee.

Morrissey Lost to a fella named Poole. Then he killed Poole....gangster. Tom Hyer was probably the baddest guy around at that time though....John saw what the butcher did to James and wasn't about to have none.....gangster.
This is all good stuff,. I love the surprises that I come across, TOM TOUGH is a bloke I never heard of, but he was a full-on all-action pre-Battling nelson - Jake LaMotta type. Tough eschewed the normal drcorum, had no time for the ceremonious type of thing and conformity of type, Tom was a fighter because he loved getting bruises as much as giving them........ man he's the god-father of the modern slugger, an Englishman who fought like a NOO York immigrant.

McGoorty
10-12-2011, 11:13 AM
JEM WARD AND JACK CARTER

_ The second deposit for the fight between these men was made
good on Tuesday, at Frank Redmond's, in the presence of a strong
muster of the Fancy - casine and pugilistic. Carter was in high
spirits, and posted his blunt with good will, offering at the same
time, to put the whole down, if necessary. Ward's friends were
not quite so forward; but they did what was needful, and left the
rest till the proper season. It is to be hoped the friends of both
men will "do the thing that is liberal," and that neither will
have to encroach upon his private funds. The fight will, no doubt,
be interesting, and may be had in any neighborhood where the
expences of the men are properly considered. Ward continues
in Liverpool, where he has some staunch friends, who will, no
doubt, come forward with the next deposit. Carter has set out
for Manchester and says he will fight Byrne, the Glasgow
Champion, if he can catch him "in the vein." The place of
fighting may be known at Reuben Marten's, and Harry Holt's,
tomorrow evening.

McGoorty
10-12-2011, 11:14 AM
ACTION AND NICHOLLS

_ Tuesday is the important day for the decision of the match be-
tween these big 'uns. The distance is within twenty miles of
London, and those who "snuff the winds" of the "sweet South,"
fragrant with the savour of last year's Hayes, will not be far out
in their reckoning. Highly Addington, the late Under-Secretary
of State, was particularly partial to this part of the country. Both
men are in high condition - Nicholls the favorite, guiness to
pounds. Nicholls makes his first appearance in public, having
never before fought in the ring; he is a butcher by trade, and is
expected to "cut up" well. Action is farther advanced in the vale
of years, being six-and-thirty, and booked as rather stale. Still
he is a good one, and has got off much of his superflueus flesh.
His experience and staunch game are also in his favor. His most
celebrated battle was with Peter Crawley, on the 6th of May,
1823, which he fought with a degree of game and science that
raised him high in the estimation of the Fancy. He was, how-
ever, beaten in thirteen rounds, and sixteen minutes. He also
fought Kendrick, the slashing black boxer, losing the first, but
winning the second battle. His weirght may be about 13 stone,
and Nicholls is not far short of the same substance. Should Ni-
cholls win, he will be backed against some of the first rate stars.

YOUNG GAS AND REUBEN MARTEN
TO THE EDITOR OF BELL'S LIFE IN LONDON
_ SIR - As I was not so well as I should be when I last fought
Reuben Marten, I am prepared to make a fresh match with him
for 100L. a-side, to come off 3 months after my fight with Piefinch.
A friend of mine will meet him when and where he likes to sign
articles, and make a deposit. _ JONATHAN BISSELL.

YOUNG GAS AND PIEFINCH
_ Young Gas was in town on Thursday, on a visit to his friends,
anticipatory of his fight with Piefinch; he is looking extremely
well, and hopes his London friends will lend him a hand. Fifty
Pounds a-side of the battle-money is already down. The whole is
to be made good on the 1st of April.

DOBELL AND BAILY
_ These men post their third deposit on Tuesday evening next,
at Dobell's crib, on Saint John Street.

McGoorty
10-12-2011, 11:18 AM
This and the last two posts is from the "Bell's Life In London", 16 MARCH 1828 - Boxing News..... how it were.GYBLETTS AND RUSSEL
_ This fight will come off on Wednesday next, within a few
miles of Lynn. Stockman and Old Peter Saunders have set
out the scene of action to wait on Gybletts.

BISHOP SHARP AND YOUNG DUTCH SAM
_ The Bishop will be prepared with the "needful" to accept
Young Dutch Sam's challenge in our last, tomorrow, at Joe
Fishwick's benefit. Wren will also be prepared to make a
match with Ned Stockman, or Frank Redmond, for 25L. or 50L.

BOB CASTLES AND PADDY FLYNN
_ The fourth deposit for the fight between these men will be
made good on Monday evening next, St.Patrick's Day, at Jack
Randall's, the Hole in the Wall, Chancery Lane. Both men are
going on well, and are improving in condition from close training.

NED SAVAGE AND KIRKMAN
_ The second deposit was made good on Thursday evening, at
the Hole in the Wall, gate-street, Lincoln's Inn-fields, and the
day of combat was postponed from the 8th to the 14th of April.

M'CARTHY AND BALLARD
_ The second deposit for this fight was made good on Tuesday
evening, at John Hudson's, Leadenhall Market. The third de-
posit is fixed to be made at Dobell's, the Black Bull, in St. John
Street, on Tuesday evening next.

BENEFITS
_ Alick Reid's benefit at the High House, Pimlico, on Tues-
day evening, was a complete bumper, and the setting-to was
excellent.
_ Joe Fishwick, the industrious Commissary of the Ring, will
take a benefit at the Tennis Court, in the Haymarket, on Mon-
day next, when all the nobs to whom he has always been an ac-
tive friend, will set to for him. Bishop Sharpe has promised to
set with Jack Martin, and Dick Curtis will try his hand with
his late opponent Coaly, as a wind-up.
_ Frosty-Faced Fargo has announced a benefit on the 25th,
at the Hope Tavern, in Blackmoor Street, Clare Market. All
the "right sort" will bring their fives into play for his advantage. -----------------------------FIGHTS TO COME.
March 18. - Dick Action and Jack Nicholls, 25L. a-side.
March 25. - Harry Jones and Bill Savage, 25L. a-side.
April 2. - Bob Castles and Paddy Flynn, 25L. a-side.
April 8. - Brown and Sampson, 250L. a-side, half way be-
tween Birmingham and Bridgenerth.
April 8. - Piefinch and Young Gas, 100L. a-side - same ring.
April 8. - Dobell and Baily, 100L. a-side.
April 14. - Ned Savage and Kirkman, 25 gs. to 25L.
April 15. - M'Carthy and Ballard, 25L. a-side.
April 29. - Ned Neal and Baldwin, 250L a-side.
May 27. - Jem Ward and Carter, 50L. a-side.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:52 PM
DEATH OF SIMON BYRNE, THE PUGILIST
NATIONAL GAZETTE AND LITERARY REGISTER
PHILADELPHIA, THURSDAY, AUGUST 1, 1833
No. 1928, Vol. XII

DEATH OF SIMON BYRNE, THE PUGILIST
We noticed on Friday last, a prize fight which
took place between Simon Byrne, the champion of
Ireland, and Deaf Burke, at No Man's Land, in Hert-
fordshire, on the previous day, and which was pro-
tracted to the extraordinary period of three hours
and six minutes, during which time ninty nine
rounds were fought. Burke was the victor, and the
unfortunate Simon Byrne was conveyed in a state
of complete exhaustion to the Woolpack Inn, St.
Alban's, where he received every possible attention.
medical assistance was immediately called in; he was
bled, and everything which surgical skill could sug-
gest was done for his relief. On Thursday night he
was considered in great danger, but on Friday and
Saturday he rallied, and the strongest hopes were
entertained that he would have recovered. During
his illness he was constantly attended by a friend,
and was frequently visited by Tom Spring, to whom
he expressed the greatest gratitude. On Saturday
afternnon his symptoms became more alarming, and
on Sunday morning, on Spring, (who was at St. Al-
ban's,) being acquainted with the imminence of his
danger...

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:54 PM
FIGHT BETWEEN TOM HYER AND YANKEE SULLIVAN


_ In compliance with the wishes and requests of many of our
readers, and because it was a notable instance of the relative
powers of certain elements in prize fighting, we re-publish in
this issue the report of the great fight between Tom Hyer and
Yankee Sullivan. The latter was a man whose game and fighting
powers had been tested in many lands, and who had never lost
a battle. He possessed great experience, unflinching game, and
tremendous powers of hitting. He had, too, in an eminent degree,
that wary craft which distinguishes the vulpine breed. On the other
hand, Hyer, though a comparative novice in the prize ring, had
those advantages which youth, length, height, and weight, in a strong
and symmetrical frame, must necessarily confer. Moreover, he was
known to be a fine, effective fighter, a cool tactician, and on of
undeniable game and endurance. In his first fight with McCleester
he had abundantly exhibited those qualities which have always
distinguished the great masters of the pugilistic art. He had won
a desperate and obstinately contested battle of 101 rounds, in
2 hours and 55 minutes. Both men had been severely punished;
but while McCleester was utterly beaten and exhausted, Hyer
was comparatively fresh and strong, with lots of fight still in him.
The battle, then, we think, was enough to justify his friends in
backing him against Sullivan or any other man in the world,
had they chosen to do so.

Fistiana.
THE GREAT PRIZE-FIGHT BETWEEN TOM
HYER AND YANKEE SULLIVAN, FOR $10,000
Won by Hyer in Seventeen Minutes and Eighteen
Seconds. Wednesday, February 7, 1849
_ THE GREAT PRIZE-FIGHT, which had been the standard topic of conver-
sation for many months in fighting circles, and which, to confess the truth,
had occupied a large share of the attention of refined society for the same
time, came off, according to the agreement, on Wednesday, the 7th of February,
1849, at Rock Point, mouth of Still Pond Creek, in Kent County, on the
eastern shore of Maryland, about 40 miles from Baltimore.

SETTING THE STAKES
_ At ten minutes past four everything was set, and notice was given to the
parties in the house that all was ready.IN THE RING
_ Sullivan, shortly after this summons, emerged from the house, being pre-
ceded by one of his seconds who carried a pair of hot bricks, which were
intended for his feet while waiting for the signal to begin. As he approached
the ring his appearance was hailed with cheers, and when he threw in his
cap, which was a velvet one of a rich dark green, the most enthusisstic shouts
were heard from his friends. He took his seat upon a chair that was provided
for him, and with his feet upon the bricks, waited for the entrance of his foe.
In two or three minutes more, Hyer came forth, borne on the brawny
shoulders of his friend Dutch Charley, and as he neared the ropes, he shyed
his castor, a foggy-looking piece of felt, into the arena before him. Another
burst of clamor then rent the sky, and amid increased enthusiasm, each man
tied his colors to the stake. That of Hyer was the spangled ensign of his country,
while Sullivan's was a green fogle with oval spots of white. Both men sat down
on their seconds' knees. and confronted each other while the final preliminaries
were arranged.
_ While thus awaiting the summons to the ordeal, the seconds, Joe Win-
row and John Ling, the first for Hyer and the latter for Sullivan, came for-
ward and made the toss for choice of ground. This was won for Sullivan,
who, thereupon, reserved the corner, where he already sat, giving to his
antagonist the bright and dazzling sun directly in his eyes. The seconds
now took their corners, Tom Burns taking the place of the captured Thomp-
son. Hyer's regular trainer, and Country McCleester supplying the absence
of Tom O'Donnell, on the part of Sullivan. Outside the ropes, in waiting
on the latter, was Stephen Wilson, acting as bottle holder, and on the other
corner, similary affixed, was the brother of the lofty champion. At twenty-
minutes past four exactly, Winrow asked the question: "Are you ready?"
"Yes," said Sullivan, rising and beginning to strip off his outer clothes, an
operation in which he was immediately followed by Hyer, and which was
accomplished by both with the celerity of a stage metamorphosis. In less
than a minute they stood stripped to the waist, and attired in their neat
fighting clothes. Such was the absorbing interest which held possession of
all minds during the proceedings, that but a single bet was offered and
made. Indeed $35 was the entire amount that was wagered on the ground,
and that bet was even.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:54 PM
THE MEN
_ As the antagonists stood up, all ready for the strife, there was a marked
disparity in the appearance of the men. Hyer stood six feet two and a half
inches, and Sullivan but five ten and a half. The weight of the former,
woreover, was in the close neighborhood of 185 lb., while the avoirdupois
of Sullivan was rated no higher than 155 lb., making the difference of thirty
pounds in Hyer's favor. As to condition, both seemed equal. They were
as finely developed in every muscle as their physical capacity could reach,
and the bounding confidence which sparkled fiercely in their eyes, showed
that their spirits and courage were at their highest mark. Sullivan, with
his round compact chest, formidable head, shelving flinty brows, fierce
glaring eyes, and clean-turned shoulder, looked the very incarnation of the
spirit of meschievous genius; while Hyer, with his broad, formidable chest,
and long muscular limbs, seemed as if he could almost trample him out of
life, at will.

THE FIGHT
_ Before coming to the scratch, the umpire for Sullivan, asked the seconds
of his side if they intended to examine Hyer's shoes, but they declined the
formality as a matter of little consequence, upon which the word was given
and the men came up. According to rule they were obliged to shake hands
before they began, but they performed the ceremony warily, and at ex-
treme arm's length. It was the business of the seconds next to do the same,
but before they could reach the scratch to go through the idle ceremony,
the eager crowd shouted them back, and they gave way at once to the glad-
iatorial show.
_ Round 1. Sullivan with his arms well up and every muscle swelling with
it's preparation, darted towards Hyer, who stood resolutely awaiting for him
with his body well forward and in formidable readiness; and coming up to
him with a sort of run, let fly with his left at Hyer's head, but did not get
it in; he then got away from a short attempt of Hyer to counter with his
left, but Hyer followed the effort with an instant discharge of his right in
Sullivan's forehead, which made a long abrasion on the scalp, but which,
notwithstanding the power of the blow, showed neither blood nor discolor-
tion at the time. Gathering himself for a return, Sullivan then rushed in
at the body, and after two or three ineffective exchanges clinched his an-
tagonist with the underhold and struggled for the throw. This was the
great point on which was to depend the result of the fight. Sullivan relied
mainly for success upon his superior wrestling, and it was calculated by his
friends and backers, that a few of his favorite cross-buttocks would break
his young antagonist in his lithe and graceful waist, and not only render
him limpsey with weakness, but stun him with the falls. The most terri-
ble anxiety therefore existed as to the result of this endeaver. In its
fierce agitations, the spectators, who stood in an outer ring of plank laid
over the snow some feet distant from the ropes of the arena, involuntarily
rushed forward and swarmed against the ropes. Two or three times did
Sullivan knot his muscles with an almost superhuman effort, but all served
only to postpone his overthrow; for when he had spent his power by these
terrible impulsions, his iron adversary wrenched him to the ground with
the upperhold, and fell heavily, prone upon his body. This decided the
largest part of the outside betting in favor of the upper man, and shouts of
the most terrific joy went up for Hyer. The depression of Sullivan's friends
was equal in degree, and they began to get an inkling that they had under-
rated their opponent.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:55 PM
2. As soon as time was called, both men hurried to the scratch, Hyer
working to the upper slope of the ring, where stood the judges and the re-
feree, and thus slanting the sun between his body and that of his opponent,
instead of taking its beams directly in his eyes. As Sullivan came up this
time, the blood from the scratch upon his forehead made crimson confession
of its severity, and elated the friends of the tall one with shrieks of "first
blood for Hyer!" Sullivan at this hosanna rushed desperately in, and meet-
ing Hyer where he paused to receive his charge, delivered a heavy blow
with his right on Hyer's left eye. taking a counter on his opposing ogle in
return. Sullivan kept close up, and both kept striking with the rapidity of
two ****s as they fly together, rendering it almost impossible to see where
or how the hits were discharged. It was evident, however, that the rally
had not been attended with serious effect to either side. A feint from Sul-
livan, and a dodge from Hyer, intervened; when another rally followed,
Sullivan taking in return for a couple of body blows two severe discharges
on the left eye, by a sort of half upper cut with the right hand, which brought
the blood again. Sullivan then rushed in and clinched; he caught the un-
derhold again, but efforts were nought, and he was twisted to the ground
as if he had been a man of grass, his huge antagonist falling upon him as be-
fore with his entire weight. Shouts for Hyer.
_ 3. The hopes of Sullivan's friends were now fading fast, and indeed he
seemed impressed himself with the idea that he was over-matched. He
looked at his opponent with a sort of wild astonishment as he came up; but
with a desperate courage, as if conscious nothing but the most reckless
policy alone could help him, he rushed up to the scratch, and gathering
cautiously after a wicked pause, he softened his apparent intention with a
feint, but finding Hyer would not be drawn out, he let fly right and left,
and catching Hyer with the latter blow upon the body (some say neck)
staggered him backwards a couple of steps, and brought him to a sitting
position on the ground. The shouts now went up on Sullivan's side, and
amidst the uproarious glee he went smiling to his corner.
_ 4. Both came up this time with the upmost alacrity, Sullivan encouraged
by his success, and Hyer showing the upmost eagerness to get even. Sul-
ivan hurried up, and led of without getting in, and Hyer, in his excite-
ment, not only returned short, but openhanded. This excited the atten-
tion of the former's backer, who, while on the point of crying out, "Now,
you've got him, Jim," discovered that Sullivan was open-handed too. The
warning, however, brought both of them to their senses, and made them
close their fists. Hyer then hit out right and left, executing with the latter
on the old spot, and taking a body blow in return. Sullivan then ran in
and clinched, but his hold did him no good, for he was thrown in the same
manner as before, Hyer falling on him and laying across him for several
seconds, until his henchmen could come slowly and take him off. Expres-
sions of dissatisfaction here broke out from Sullivan's friends, and the um-
pire of that side claimed "foul," on the score that the upper man was not
sooner removed. The question was put to the referee, who, however, de-
ided "fair."
_ 5. Sullivan, who suffered considerably in the last round by his eager-
ness to improve the advantage he had gained in the third, led off with the
same reckless spirit, and with the same desperate aim. He struck wildly
right and left at the head, but getting stopped, next tried the body. His
incautiousness, however, received a heavy punishment in the shape of a
tremendous right-hand Paixhan on the left eye, which hit him down upon
his hand, with one knee touching the ground. Hyer rushed forward to hit
again, but checking himself, he raised his hands as if afraid of being
tempted to a foul blow, and moving backwards, turned towards his corner.
At this moment Sullivan's umpire, supposing the round at an end, dropped
his eye to his watch and started his time. It happened, however, that as
Hyer had turned away, Sullivan, apparently wild, had risen, and recom-
menced the round; whereupon Hyer turned upon him, and pressed him by
main strength to the ground. While this supplementary struggle was going
on, the umpire raised his eyes, and supposing Hyer had turned to attack
Sullivan after the round had finished, as he had marked it, called out "foul."
The character of the renewal was explained to him, however, whereupon he
withdrew his complaint.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:55 PM
6. Sullivan now began to show his punishment and fatigue in a slight
nervousness of his legs, but still he ran bodly up for desperate fighting, as
game as a pebble, and as resolute as if the battle was still within his reach.
Several rapid exchanges were then made, Sullivan catching it on the right
eye-brow, in a counter to a body hit. Hyer then fought Sullivan to the
ropes, and bent him backwards over them. Some sharp fibbing took place,
which, proving rather unpleasant to Hyer, he seized Sullivan and threw him
and fell on him, with his arm across his neck. He remained in this position
for some moments without interference by his seconds, who saw that it was
to his advantage, whereupon a claim of "foul" was made by Sullivan's
judge. The referee, however, decided "fair." It was likewise claimed that
in rising Hyer had pressed improperly on Sullivan's neck, but the claim was
not made out.
_ 7. Sullivan, breathing short and exhibiting much fatigue, came up the
same as ever, and Hyer, as before stood on the slope to forbid his passage
one inch upon his ground. The little man, as he approached his huge an-
tagonist, seemed as if dispirited by the decision of the referee, while he
was nearly spent with the severe exertions that he had made to hit and get
away. But he hit with no effect, while the blows of his powerful antagonist
made the blood flow profusely down his face, although they had really less
effect upon the unfortunate left eye than it seemed. Several exchanges
were made, all against Sullivan, when he rushed in and again at his wrestling
hold, and found the ground as he had done in these close encounters every
time before.
_ 8. The hit in the eye which Hyer received in the second round, now
showed its colors, and puffed up with dirty pride and vanity over the sur-
rounding flesh. Sullivan's left eye was no better; indeed worse, and bore
many testimonials in crimson crevices of Hyer's black and long knuckles.
Sullivan again made play from the jump, but got nothing in. As he hit out
at the body, Hyer struck short with the left, as was his custom every time,
when he meditated mischief with his right hand, and then let go with his
dexter mawley, driving the blood out from the left eye in gory spray, but
still not knocking his staunch opponent down. Sullivan finding that he
could not perry off these terrific hits, ran in again, but was thrown as before,
Hyer falling on him, and lying with his breast across Sullivan's chest, neck,
and face. Hyer's seconds were again slow in coming up to take him off,
upon which another appeal of "foul" was made to the referee, who, how-
ever, decided "fair," though he admitted he could not see at all times, in
consequence of the crowd getting between him and the men, and jostiling
him about since the first round.
_ 9. "Time" came around quick at this "call," as much of the thirty seconds
was consumed while the men were on the ground. Both men came up
bloody to the scratch; Sullivan being literally clotted with gore, while the
clear crimson smoked on Hyer's chest, from a lance wound which had been
made undr his right eye to prevent it from closing out his sight. He was
also dabbled with the drains which ran from Sullivan, and which painted
his arms and bosom every time they closed. Sullivan walked up to the
scratch this time with a freshened vigor, and showed the same determina-
tion as when he commenced the battle. Hyer, who was cool and apparently
unfatigued, at once saw the real condition of his man, and concluding that it
was now time to change his tactics, led off for the first time. The Yankee
seemed better capable of resisting this mode of warfare than making a suc-
cessful aggression, and dodged two wicked looking blows; but in endeavor-
ing to return with a rush, he brought Hyer to his usual defensive position.
He then took Sullivan's blows without wincing or endeavoring to stop them,
being satisfied to take advantage of the right-hand counter, which from the
first had told with such terrible effect. Sullivan rushed in again to save
himself from punishment, and was thrown, with Hyer on him.
_ 10. Sullivan came up with his hands open and showing distress. He led off
with ineffectual passes, which only served to provoke punishment, and give
him the return of a wicked right-handed hit in the old place, which stag-
gered him to the ground.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:56 PM
11. Hyer, strong on his pins, respiring regulary, and evidently in posses-
sion of all his strength. He waited for Sullivan as before, and though Yan-
kee came up rather slower than before, Hyer was content to wait his ap-
proach rather than alter a method by which he was getting on so well. On
meeting at the scratch, a few rapid hits were made, which ended in a clinch
and a wrestle to the ground, Hyer uppermost as before, but with Sullivan's
leg locked over his until he was taken off.
_ 12. This time both men came up quick, and Sullivan led off hitting wildly
and madly right and left, while his cool antagonist, watching his chance,
took a short hit for the privilege of countering on the old spot. Sullivan,
then rallying his energies, tried the Secor dodge, and endeavored to slip
under Hyer with the left, on top of the head, with a round blow, which dis-
charged him to the ground.
_ 13. Up to this time all the fighting was done in Sullivan's corner, making
Hyer's boast good that he should not have an inch more than twelve feet to
do his fighting in. This round commenced by sharp exchanges right and left,
as if they had come together for the first time. At length Hyer, finding it
was all his own way, rallied Sullivan sharply, and driving him to the ropes,
backed him over them, and entered into a smart exchange of fibbing. Hyer
caught hold of the ropes while thus engaged, when a man from Boston, by
the name of Hennessey, seized his thumb, and bent it backwards from its
hold, whereupon Hyer let go, and clinching Sullivan, wrenched him to the
ground, and fell upon him.
_ 14. Sullivan giving out fast; Hyer, perceiving it, entered briskly on the
offensive, fought him to the ropes, and fibbed him on them as before. After
an exchange of this kind of work, Hyer jerked him from the ropes, and
clinching, wrestled him to the ground, and fell upon him.
_ 15. Sullivan shaky on his pins, and Hyer apparently as strong as ever. As
Sullivan came up and attempted to hit out, he slipped; Hyer rallied him to
the ropes, hitting him right and left in the pursuit, and bending him again
over the ropes. During this struggle he caught his arm, and bending it
backward in its socket, gave it a wrench that must have caused the most
agonizing pain; he then clinched and threw him to the ground, and fell up-
on him as before.
_ 16. When time was called, Sullivan was slow in rising from his second's
knee, and it was evident that his fighting star had set, for the day at least.
He walked in a limpsey manner towards the score, but when he put up his
left arm the tremor which shook it showed that it was distressed by pain.
Hyer did not wait for him, but advancing beyond the score, let fly both
right and left in Sullivan's face, who, though he could not return it, took it
without wincing in the least. Hyer then rushed him to the ropes again,
and after a short struggle there, threw him and fell heavily upon him, in
which position Sullivan locked his leg over him again, as if he would hold
him in his place. When he was taken off, Sullivan was found to be entirely
exhausted, and when lifted up reeled half around and staggered backward
towards the ropes. The fight was done. He could not come in again, and
one of his seconds took him from the ring, without waiting for time to be
called. Hyer's second, as soon as this took place, advanced to take Sullivan's
colors as their trophy, but being interfered with and denied by Ling, Hyer
rushed forward himself, and seizing Ling by the arm, enabled his friend to
take the prize. The shouts then went up for the victor, and the party
commenced unthreading the stakes of their halyards, for the voyage back.
_ Thus ended a contest which had excited more interest than any other
pugilistic encounter that ever took place in this country; but which,
though it engaged thousands of minds for a period of six long months,
was done up, when once begun, in seventeen minutes and eighteen seconds.
_ The boat soon got up sail after the battle was over, and made for Pool
Island again on their return. On arriving at that place they found the
steamer Boston still aground, and as her warlike freight came crowding to
the side, the pungees gave them three times three as a compensation for
the disappointment they had received, in neither arresting the principals,
nor getting a peep at the fight.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:58 PM
REMARKS
_ The foregoing contest may be aptly termed a "hurricane fight." From
the commencement to the close it was bitter, unremitting, and determined.
On the part of Sullivan it consisted of a series of quick and almost super-
human efforts to outfight and stun his antagonist from the start, while
Hyer, who seemed to be thoroughly aware of his intent, contented himself
with standing at the scratch and forbidding any entrance to his side, by the
tremendous counter hits which he delivered in return for Sullivan's rapid
visitations. He did not attempt to make parrying a leading feature of his
policy, but for the greater portion of the time cheerfully met Sullivan's
blows for a chance at countering back. He had evidently settled upon
this as his policy for the fight, judging correctly, that if hit and hit was to
be the order of the day, the weakest structure must go to pieces in the
struggle. In addition to this, Hyer showed excellent skill in fighting, and
his method of hitting short with the left, as a preliminary to the Paixhan
discharge of the right, in the style of a half upper cut, could not have been
excelled in the use which he made of it, by the best hitters who have ever
shown themselves in the prize ring. To help him still farther, he was cool
and self-possessed, with the exception of a moment or two at the opening of
the fourth round, when he seemed either shaken by his fall, or stung from his
control by the cheers which greeted Sullivan for the handsome blow. Sulli-
van on the other hand fought wild and eager. He did not display that
shrewdness and care which has characterized all his previous fights, but
seemed to consider himself in the ring, not so much to decide some three
hundred thousand dollars, as to revenge upon Hyer, in the bitterest and
most sudden manner, the personal hatred that stood between them. He
hurried to the scratch at every round, and commenced leading off right and
left, and when obliged to take it more severely than he bargained for, in-
variably rushed in for a clinch, notwithstanding each succeeding round
proved more conclusively than those which had gone before, he could not
throw his man, and that these reverses invariably brought upon him the
severest punishment of all. He was twisted to the ground invariably by
the superior strength of his antagonist, and what in view of this, was sur-
prising to his friends, he would resist strongly every time, instead of slip-
ping down as easily as possible to save his strength. As to Hyer's lying on
him to the extent he did, there has been much dispute, and while one party
claims it to have been a "foul," the other insists that it was a pardonable
advantage. Between these two opinions the referee decided "fair." He
decided so properly. There is no rule in "Fistiana" which prescribes the
length of time which a man may be allowed to lie upon another between
the rounds, but the common law of the ring gives to each side the posses
sion of their man the instant the round has ended. Sullivan was therefore,
the property of his seconds the instant he touched the ground, and they
were entitled to him, though obliged to throw twenty men from his body
to get at him. It was natural for Hyer's seconds to let him lie when he
had the advantage, but it was the duty of Sullivan's seconds to insist upon
their rights, and to acquaint the other side, that, if they did not take their
man off in time, they would throw him off. This they had a right to do,
and the results of their not having done it, was, that while Hyer, after the
struggle and throw, would repose at ease on Sullivan's body and draw
resprirations of fresh atmosphere, Sullivan was crushed with the incumbent
weight, and capable of catching only a few muffled breaths.
_ There never was, perhaps, a battle in which there was so much fighting
is so short a space of time; none, certainly, in which more resolute punish-
ment was given and taken, without flinching on either side. The history
of the fight consists in the fact that Sullivan was over-matched; and, in
the further fact that Hyer showed himself capable of matching any man of
his size and weight, doubtless, who exists in Britian or the United States. ---------SPECIAL NOTICE
THE
GREAT FIGHT
BETWEEN
TOM SAYERS AND HEENAN, FOR THE
CHAMPIONSHIP OF THE WORLD
_ A SPECIAL EDITION OF WILKES SPIRIT OF THE TIMES will be published
on the arrival of Mr. Wilkes' account of the Fight, containing a full and
exclusive account of the great international encounter.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ 100,000 COPIES
_ Will be ready for Delivery within Six Hours after the arrival of the steamer
bringing the news. Agents will please order early to insure a supply.
_ N.B. - our Extra will contain the histories of the men, and the splendid
likenesses of each which have appeared in our paper.

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 12:58 PM
http://www.boxinggyms.com/news/wilkes1860/hyer_sullivan1860.htm

McGoorty
10-22-2011, 01:38 PM
NEW YORK DAILY TRIBUNE
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1882
JOHN L. SULLIVAN vs PATRICK RYAN




THE SULLIVAN-RYAN PRIZE FIGHT.
SULLIVAN WINS WITHOUT A SCRATCH.
RYAN SEVERELY PUNISHED AT MISSISSIPPI CITY,
MISS. - OVER 2,000 PEOPLE IN ATTENDANCE ON
THE BRUTAL EXHIBITION - NO INTERFERENCE
BY THE AUTHORITIES.
_ MISSISSIPPI CITY, Miss., Feb. 7. - Long
before daylight this morning the Mobile Rail-
road station was thronged with "sporting men"
and newspaper reporters who had come here
to witness the prize fight between Patrick Ryan,
of Troy, N.Y., and John L. Sullivan, of Boston.
Between 10 and 11 o'clock a.m. excursion trains
brought large crowds from New Orleans, and the
grounds about Barnes's Hotel were soon filled with
about 2,000 people. The sheriff had business in
Biloxi, which kept him away until the fight was over.
There was no indications that the authorities thought
of interfering. If they had sought to prevent the fight,
it is not likely that they would have been successful,
for the people here were in favor of a "fair and free
fight." The pugilists, who did most of their training
in New Orleans and on the line of the Mobile Rail-
road did not arrive until this morning. Sullivan came
at 10:30 o;clock and took a room opposite Ryan,
within 100 feet of the ring. The ropes and stakes
arrived at 11 o'clock. The ring was immediately
pitched in front of the hotel, under a grove of live
oaks. There the large crowds of people waited until
all the preliminary arrangements were completed,
passing their time in making bets.
_ A few minutes before 12 o'clock Sullivan cast
his cap into the ring, and soon after Ryan entered
the ring, accompanied by "Tom" Kelly and "Johnny"
Roach. Ryan won the choice of corners and took the
southwest corner. Sullivan took the opposite corner
with the sun in his face. After some cousultation,
James D. Houston, of New Orleans, was chosen
referee. He declined, and at 12:30 Charles Bush
was chosen. He also refused. Soon after the matter
was settled by the choice of Alexander Brewster, of
New Orleans, and "Jack" Hardy, of Vicksburg. All
the arrangements having been made, the two pugilists
entered the ring and shook hands. The incidents of the
fight are given below:
_ First Round - Both men sparred cautiously for an
opening. Ryan led with his right, but fell short and
caught in return a "hot one" from Sullivan's left
hand on the face. Exchanges then became short
and quick, and Sullivan finally knocked Ryan
down with a severe right-hander on the cheek.
Time, 30 seconds.
_ Second Round - Sullivan at once rushed toward
Ryan and gave him a blow on the jaw with his left
hand. Ryan closed with him, and they wrestled for
a fall, Ryan winning and falling heavily on his
opponent. Time, 25 seconds.
_ Third Round - The men came together with
a rush, and Sullivan, after making three
passes, knocked Ryan down with a terrible
right-hand blow on the chest. Time, 4 seconds.
_ Fourth Round - The men sparred, for a second
or two, and then Sullivan gave Ryan a stinging
blow on his nose before the closed. "Slugging"
then began and continued until Ryan was forced
upon the ropes, when he went to the grass.
Time, 20 seconds.
_ Fifth Round - This was a repetition of the
previous round, both men closing and putting
in their "best licks." The attack of both men
was confined to the face. Ryan succeeded in
bringing Sullivan to his knees at the close of
the round.
_ Sixth Round - Sullivan came up smiling, but
it was evident that Ryan was not only suffer-
ing, but was somewhat afraid of his antago-
nist. Sullivan lost no time, but Ryan closed
and threw him.
_ Seventh Round - This round was a short one.
The men closed and hitting was continued for
a few seconds, when Ryan went to the grass
a wreck. Sullivan came to his corner smiling.
Ryan, however, had the grit to come up for
another round.
_ Eighth Round - When time was called the
men came up promptly. Ryan was decidedly
weak, but he made a gallant struggle. Sulli-
van fought him over the ring into the um-
pire's corner and over the ropes. Upon getting
off the ropes Ryan rallied, but went down on
one hand and one knee. A foul was looked
for, but, though Sullivan had his hand raised
to strike, he restrained himself as Ryan rose.
Both men were retiring to their corners when
the seconds of each cried "Go for him," and
the men again came together. They closed and
then clinched, and after a short struggle both
went down.
_ Ninth Round - Ryan failed to come to time
and the fight was declared in favor of Sullivan.
_ Ryan and Sullivan were visited after they had
gone to their quarters. Ryan was lying in an
exhausted condition on his bed, badly disfigured
about the face, his upper lip being cut through
and his nose disfigured. He did not move but lay
panting. Stimulants were given him. He is terribly
punished on the head.
_ At the conclusion of the fight Sullivan ran laugh-
ing to his quarters at a lively gait. He lay down
awhile as he was a little out of wind, but there is
not a scratch on him. He chatted pleasantly with
his friends.
_ The fight was short, sharp, and decisive on Sul-
livan's part throughout, Ryan showing weariness
after the first round.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:09 AM
September 30, 1974
'run, Sullivan! Run!'
Tom Hyer and Yankee Sullivan led 110 cops on a merry chase through Chesapeake Bay before battling for the American heavyweight title
George A. Gipe. -------From SPORTS ILLUSTRATED.Those who complain that the fight game has grown dull and predictable might well consider making the sport illegal once again. For before boxing gained official recognition and eventually degenerated into a fuzzy dream sequence of Friday nights at tubeside, there was always the delicious possibility that the prefight cat-and-mouse game between entrepreneur and police captain would be more entertaining than the fight itself.

Take as an example America's heavyweight championship battle of Feb. 7, 1849. The combatants on that day were Tom Hyer, who was generally recognized as champ after having beaten Country McClusky at Caldwell's Landing on the Hudson eight years before, and Yankee Sullivan, who weighed in at only 155 but was undefeated after a tour that had taken him halfway around the world. But the battle between the fight promoters and the police was much more exciting.

The ballyhoo started months before, when Sullivan, infuriated by the suggestion that he was afraid of Hyer, stormed into a New York saloon one night and challenged the champion then and there. Hyer responded by pounding Sullivan into submission within three minutes, an act of commercial naivete which could have ruined the real fight but somehow did not. It helped, of course, when a boxing cohort of Hyer's was murdered. And the police promptly lost Round One of the three-way contest by being unable to locate the killer.

Having bested the New York authorities on this count, the fight promoters decided to cash in their chips by holding the battle in Maryland where a deserted piece of real estate named Pool's (now Pooles) Island offered a sanctuary in the middle of Chesapeake Bay. Maryland officials responded with the warning that the "disgusting exhibition" would be prevented. To back up their words they activated two companies of officers, the Independent Blues and Independent Greys, armed them and chartered the steamer Boston as the state's assault craft.

Stimulated rather than deterred by the police activity, fight fans, gamblers and other amateur and professional patrons of the art began pouring into Baltimore during the week before the fight. On Feb. 6 Hyer arrived at Carroll's Island, just south of the city, while the Sullivan group settled into one of the two buildings on Pool's Island. A crew of workmen began clearing an area within which the fight would take place. Simultaneously the steamship Cumberland left Philadelphia with about 100 fans, and two schooners carrying 40 fans each left Baltimore.

Just before midnight***8212;the Boston, loaded with about 110 officers and towing a scow for the transporting of prisoners, pulled out of Baltimore harbor. Two hours later the expedition arrived at Carroll's Island and the men eagerly swarmed ashore to see who could be the first to lay official hands on Hyer.

To their dismay Carroll's Island was deserted. Forewarned, the Hyer party had left for Pool's Island at 6 p.m. Even more annoying was the fact that the scow had swamped and several boats which had been placed on board her were adrift about a mile astern. Another hour was lost recovering the boats.

In the meantime, Hyer and his friends had arrived at Pool's Island and gone to sleep in the second building. A careful watch was maintained to prevent their being surrounded, for the police outnumbered the fighters' parties by 10 to one.

Weather and police incompetence improved the odds considerably. By the time Captain Gifford's men arrived at Pool's Island the scow was barely afloat and the bay was so rough that only 10 men were able to reach land after struggling at the oars of the small boats for half an hour. Tired and discouraged, the landing force trundled up to the buildings with a maximum of noise and assaulted frontally.

Neither fighter's party was even remotely surprised. At the first sound of tramping feet Hyer had crept downstairs and hidden himself on the first floor of the building. When the police charged into the house, they went right by him and upstairs to the bedroom where Hyer's trainer, George Thompson, was sleeping. Assuming him to be the champion, they placed him under arrest while Hyer slipped out a ground-floor window and into a small boat.The operation against Yankee Sullivan was even more inept. Barging into the second building, the police found themselves facing Sullivan and Tom O'Donnell, his sparring partner, without the faintest idea who was who. After a moment of shock, Sullivan suddenly put his hand on O'Donnell's shoulder, shoved and yelled, "Run, Sullivan! Run like hell!"

O'Donnell ran and, incredibly, every last one of the police officers took off in hot pursuit. Sullivan calmly strolled out of the building and waded to a nearby schooner.

It was not until an hour later that the police discovered they had made a couple of significant errors. In the meantime the two schooners and the steamer Cumberland had scattered. The question was on which vessel were the real pugilists? Predictably, the police decided they must be on the Cumberland and headed south after her. Under a heavy press of steam, they overhauled her near Baltimore, brought her to and thoroughly searched the ship for the fighters. Of course they were not aboard. Reboarding the Boston, Captain Gifford sailed back in the direction of the schooners, but just as the Boston reached a point nearly abreast of the Pool's Island lighthouse, it ran aground on a sandbar. And there it remained until evening when another police boat was sent to the rescue.

One Baltimore newspaper tried to salvage a modicum of state pride from the announcement that the fight was to be transferred to Dover, Del. " Maryland," it wrote, had "prevented her soil from being desecrated by so foul and brutal an exhibition." But it hadn't.

Pulling ashore at Maryland's Kent County on the eastern side of the bay, the fighters performed before a meager audience. Hyer won in the 16th round, earning a $10,000 purse; Sullivan suffered a "slightly fractured skull." By all accounts, it was an anticlimax.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:14 AM
April 02, 1973
The Brawls At Boston Corners
Arthur Myers................................ SPORTS ILLUSTRATED///Prizefights have changed a lot of things over the years: the amount of money in people's pockets, the shape of a man's nose, opinions once held to be unshakable, the course of many men's lives. But only once to my knowledge has a prizefight changed the map of the United States. That was the fight between John Morrissey and the man they called Yankee Sullivan, and as a result of it Massachusetts lost an entire town to the State of New York.

If you'll take a look at the map today, you'll see that there is a small chunk sliced away from the southwest corner of Massachusetts. That missing slice is Boston Corners. And what a place it was in the mid-1800s!

Boston Corners was a rough neighborhood because there was no law there, or at least none that was enforced, for when the map makers drew up the state lines, they favored neatness over the topographical realities. The neatest way to separate New York and Massachusetts was simply to extend the New York-Vermont line south. This tidy arrangement did not take the Taconic Mountains into consideration. They were small mountains, but not easy to get over in those days, and they effectively cut off Boston Corners from Great Barrington, the nearest center of Massachusetts law enforcement. The New York State sheriffs, of course, had no jurisdiction there.

In time things got so bad that the 50 or 60 honest farmers and burghers of Boston Corners petitioned the New York and Massachusetts legislatures to transfer the town to New York, but nobody paid much attention.

And so we come to the fateful year of 1853. Let us momentarily quit Boston Corners and shift our attention 120 miles south to almost equally lawless Gotham and the prize ring.

In those days it was hard to tell exactly who was heavyweight champion***8212;something like these days. The problem then, however, was that prizefights of all kinds were strictly illegal, and this tended to discourage any formal ratings. But most of the leading, or at least most publicized, pretenders to the title of top bopper were concentrated in New York City, where Irish immigrants and their progeny habitually roughed each other up for fun and glory. The best brawlers had their own gangs, and the two most prominent were John Morrissey and Yankee Sullivan.

Morrissey was only 22 but already owned a popular saloon on lower Broadway called the Gem. He was later, via Tammany, to rise to the hallowed halls of Congress. But at this tender age he mainly wanted to be recognized as the world's toughest Irishman.

Standing in the way of that ambition was Sullivan, a man who at 40 was almost old enough to be Morrissey's father, and who weighed only 150 pounds. But he was a tough cookie who could take on anyone of any size, a sort of Mickey Walker of his day. They called him "Old Smoke," for his deftness at ducking while poking his adversary in the teeth.

During the summer of 1853 the Sullivan and Morrissey gangs staged many a rumble. Hostilities reached a crescendo when, one summer evening, Sullivan strode into the Gem, mounted a table and announced that he both could and would flatten Morrissey for keeps within one hour in a 24-foot ring.

Summoned to the scene, Morrissey came swooping in and implied that on the worst day he ever lived he could murder this bum. Rivalry was at such fever pitch that the boys might well have started slugging it out then and there if cooler heads had not prevailed to save the physical confrontation for commerce.Articles were signed to fight for a purse of $2,000 on Oct. 5, within 100 miles or thereabouts of New York City. The fight seemed sure to draw thousands, but how to keep the enterprise from being busted***8212;that was the problem. Someone thought of Boston Corners, and the wheels of history went into a slow grind.

The Harlem Railroad had just been built, and the sports began inundating Boston Corners via rail the day before the fight. The fighters waited until the last minute. One never knew; the law boys might make it over the hills from Great Barrington after all.

A ring had been set up on the drying ground of an old brickyard, and hours before the scheduled fight, the spectators staged dozens of unscheduled ones.

When the fighters got into the ring, Morrissey looked like a giant beside the middle-aged Sullivan. But just as the fight was about to start, Old Smoke got a special shot of encouragement. His wife jumped up at ringside and yelled that she had $1,000 that said her man would draw first blood. The bet was covered, and the gong sounded.

Sullivan immediately penetrated the burly Morrissey's defense and opened a gash over his right eye, and Mrs. Sullivan collected early. Morrissey had a magnificent build but a rather serious handicap for a fighter: he was blind in his left eye. Sullivan worked diligently on the gash, and the blood kept running down into Morrissey's good eye.

In those days, a knockdown ended the round, and the rounds sped by quickly as one or the other of the fighters hit the deck. The fight became more and more bloody and bitter as it ground on past the 15th, 20th, 30th rounds.

Each time one of the fighters got in a good blow it would set off a chain reaction in the crowd as their followers started sympathetic fights of their own. This extracurricular activity proved the decisive factor in the fight going on in the ring.

In the 37th round Sullivan glanced at the crowd just in time to see a close friend take a good one on the chops. Enraged, he stormed from the ring to avenge his buddy, and in a flash the whole crowd was a snarling, brawling mass. Morrissey stood alone in the center of the ring, and after some minutes of indecision, the referee raised his hand in victory. Unfortunately, however, the Massachusetts lawmen had made it over the mountains after all, and as soon as the fight ended they collared the champ and tossed him into the clink in Lenox. Prosecuted by District Attorney Henry L. Dawes of Pittsfield, he was fined $1,200 a few days later.

All in all, the boys made an indelible impression on Boston Corners, in more ways than one. The fight, publicized by newspapers all over the country, finally convinced the New York and Massachusetts legislatures that something had to be done, and a few months afterward Boston Corners was ceded to New York. Things have been pretty quiet there ever since.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:19 AM
BOXING

On Saturday, December 30, 1893, Mark Twain, along with Henry H. Rogers and others, attended boxing matches at the New York Athletic Club. They saw Frank Craig, the Harlem "Coffee Cooler," defeat "the white man" Joe Ellingsworth. Twain wrote to his wife Livy:
Mr. Archbold of the Standard Oil got tickets for us & he & Mr. Rogers & Dr. Rice & I went to the Athletic Club last Saturday night & saw the Coffee Cooler dress off another prize fighter in great style. There were 10 rounds; but at the end of the fifth the Coffee Cooler knocked the white man down & he couldn't get up any more. A round consists of only 3 minutes; then the men retire to their corners and sit down and lean their heads back against a post and gasp and pant like fishes, while one man fans them with a fan, another with a table-cloth, another rubs their legs and sponges off their faces and shoulders and blows sprays of water in their faces from his own mouth. Only one minute is allowed for this; then time is called and they jump up and go to fighting again. It is absorbingly interesting.
- Letter to Olivia Clemens, January 4, 1894, reprinted in The Love Letters of Mark Twain, (Harper & Bros., 1949), p. 287.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:21 AM
On Saturday, January 27, 1894, Mark Twain, along with Henry H. Rogers and architect Standford White, attended the boxes matches at Madison Square Garden. Stanford White introduced Mark Twain to boxer James J. Corbett in Corbett's dressing room. Twain wrote Livy:


Photo from Library of Congress Prints and Photorgraphs Division.
By 8 o’clock we were down again and bought a fifteen-dollar box in the Madison Square Garden (Rogers bought it, not I,) then he went and fetched Dr. Rice while I (went) to the Players and picked up two artists -- Reid and Simmons -- and thus we filled 5 of the 6 seats. There was a vast multitude of people in the brilliant place. Stanford White came along presently and invited me to go to the World-Champion’s dressing room, which I was very glad to do. Corbett has a fine face and is modest and diffident, besides being the most perfectly and beautifully constructed human animal in the world. I said:

“You have whipped Mitchell, and maybe you will whip Jackson in June -- but you are not done, then. You will have to tackle me.”

He answered, so gravely that one might easily have thought him in earnest:

“No -- I am not going to meet you in the ring. It is not fair or right to require it. You might chance to knock me out, by no merit of your own, but by a purely accidental blow; and then my reputation would be gone and you would have a double one. You have got fame enough and you ought not to want to take mine away from me.”

Corbett was for a long time a clerk in the Nevada Bank in San Francisco.

There were lots of little boxing matches, to entertain the crowd: then at last Corbett appeared in the ring and the 8,000 people present went mad with enthusiasm. My two artists went mad about his form. They said they had never seen anything that came reasonably near equaling its perfection except Greek statues, and they didn’t surpass it.

Corbett boxed 3 rounds with the middle-weight Australian champion -- oh, beautiful to see! -- then the show was over and we struggled out through a perfect wash of humanity
- Letter to Olivia Clemens, January 28, 1894, reprinted in Mark Twain's Letters, Vol. II, edited by Albert Bigelow Paine, p. 603-604.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:22 AM
CHICAGO DAILY INTER OCEAN, January 20, 1888, p. 5

TWAIN IN THE RING.
Adventures of the Humorist Among the Old Timed Athletes of San Francisco.
Efforts of the Author of "Roughing It" to Become a Great Boxer.
Mark Agreed to Fight, but He Wanted Two Rings for Safety.
_____

ATHLETIC EXPLOITS.

San Francisco Chronicle: Mark Twain has not lacked celebrity in his time. His life and adventures have been industriously written, both by himself, and others. Everyone knows about his exploits as a newspaper reporter, and his experiences as a river pilot; but the fact has hitherto been lost to the world that at one time he had aspirations to be a boxer.

The secret leaked out the other day in a bathing establishment at North Beach, where half a dozen well-known and venerable pioneers were gathered to celebrate the Christmas week by a plunge in the uninviting waters of the bay. A cheerful Turkish bath would, perhaps, have been more beneficial to these veterans of the spring of '49, but to evade their accustomed plunge in the chilly bay would be an acknowledgment that old age was beginning to cool their blood. This to the average pioneer is the most depressing confession that can be extracted, and so the six gray-haired and rheumatic old relics of another age sat and shivered in the bath-house after their plunge. The timely discovery of a bottle of old bourbon in one of the lockers helped to restore their circulation. As the bottle went round the tongues of the pioneers commenced to wag of the events of a quarter of a century ago. One of the pioneers suggested a bout with the boxing gloves to more thoroughly remove the effects of their aquatic indiscretion.

"Oh, there's no use in your boxing," said another old veteran. "What do you want boxing? Why, you were never able to

LICK EVEN MARK TWAIN"

This reference brought up the humorist's exploits as a would-be athlete, and the pioneers talked over them as long as the bottle held out.

"I never saw a man who was of such little account as a boxer as Mark Twain," said one pioneer who seemed to have been more familiar with the great humorist's aspirations than anyone else.

When Twain was working on the newspapers as a reporter, continued the pioneer, the Olympic Club had a set of very lively boxers. Boxing was all the rage then. Several men that have since become bankers, eminent lawyers, and railroad magnates used to put on the gloves in the old club room and keep things lively.

Twain was very ambitious to become an athlete. After he had been robbed by footpads on the Divide, outside Virginia City, an experience he has described in "Roughing It" he made up his mind to practice boxing. He thought, I guess, that if he could have used his fists to good effect he would not have had such an unpleasant experience. Any how he resolved to become an athlete, and confided his aspirations to John McComb, now the Warden of San Quentin Penitentiary. John was not a General of militia at that time, and having less dignity to carry than now was very handy with his fists. Twain, who was totally devoid of athletic qualities, looked on McComb as a sort of John L. Sullivan, or rather Tom Hyer, for the latter was the pugilistic wonder of those days.

McComb advised Twain to improve his muscles by wrestling, and the two of them spent a good many evenings in that way. The pewter pots and glasses they wrestled with, however, were too much for

THE RISING HUMORIST,

and while the future General grew rosy and rotund on the exercise, Twain kept getting more spider-like every day. McComb did not want to let him change his exercise, as Twain's droll talk when he was three sheets in the wind was very amusing; but finally Mark rebelled and announced that he would try another physical adviser.

Some one advised him to go to Frank Wheeler, well known then as a general athlete and professor of the manly art. Frank was accustomed to teaching sluggers, and his energetic instruction had such a depressing effect on Twain's jaw that he abstained from beefsteak for a month after his first lesson

He next tried Bill Clarke, also a noted boxer, and here he met with more success for a while. One evil day, however, he was induced to have a bout with John Lewis, the ex-Supervisor. Lewis was noted among the amateurs as the owner of a very ugly right hand that had a knack of catching them, with the force of a trip-hammer, under the ear when they least expected it. Lewis was somewhat sensitive of his athletic reputation, and if he thought any man was setting-to with him to test his ability, he generally let him have the best that he was able to give. Poor Mark was in a quest only of innocent practice, but Denis McCarthy, a popular and able journalist, who liked to have a joke at Twain's expense, informed Lewis that he had better look out for his opponent.

"He's knocked out a couple of light-weights on the Comstock," said the jocose editor, "and he's just trying himself against a California heavy-weight, so don't let him make any reputation on you, or he'll go back and blow about it all through Nevada."

"He will, eh!" remarked the heavy-weight, and he went into the dressing-room with a formidable frown to prepare for the set-to.

Twain came out with a loose and thick woolen shirt, which concealed his muscular deficiencies and gave him an unusually burly aspect. Notwithstanding this fact, the amateur slugger was by no means impressed with the humorist's appearance, and gave him what he thought

A LIGHT SLAP

under the ear to test his mettle. The result was disastrous. The aspiring humorist threw a double somersault and, alighting on the back of his neck, lay at full length on the floor.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:23 AM
The crowd rushed over, and Lewis, who was the first, picked him up.

"You're not hurt, are you? Why, that was nothing," said the alarmed boxer, soothingly.

The humorist only replied with a groan.

"Shall I send for a doctor for you?" asked Editor McCarthy.

"Send for an undertaker, Denis," gasped the damaged humorist.

"What's the matter with you?" inquired the now alarmed journalist.

"I'll be able to tell you as soon as my neck is set," replied the humorist, picking himself up and dragging himself back to the dressing room.

He remarked to McCarthy when he came out again, with his handkerchief wrapped around his damaged neck.

"If I could hit like that fellow I'd hire myself as a pile-driver on the city front and make $500 a day."

Twain next showed up as a boxer in the Olympic Club, where old Joe Winrow, John Morrissey's and Tom Hyer's ex-trainer, was teaching the manly art. Winrow was a professional pugilist, who had fought one of the longest ring battles on record, but he was very gentle as a teacher, and Twain blossomed out as quite a boxer. Winrow, like the celebrated Bendigo, became a very religious man after he had abandoned active pugilism, and used to read the Bible every morning as regularly as he took his breakfast. Sometimes when teaching, however, the old spirit would rise in the reformed pugilist and he would swing in his right hand with unchristian fervor. Twain had a holy horror of the old pugilist's right, and whenever he observed dangerous enthusiasm in his teacher's eye would shout out:

"Joe, remember the Scriptural instruction. 'Don't let your right hand know what your left is doing?'"

The old man used to laugh, and when the lesson was over would sit down and smoke one of the two-bit cigars that the humorist always brought along to ingratiate himself with his tutor.

THE DESPERATE BATTLE

between Twain and Moore, the bookseller, will long be remembered as one of the sensational events of the old club. Moore was a feather-weight champion and tipped the scales somewhere in the neighborhood of ninety pounds. He was very pugnacious, a quality which Twain did not possess. The humorist, however, had much the best of the match in weight, and, besides, was seconded by that accomplished mentor, Philo Jacoby; Stewart Menzies was referee, and Frank Lawton was timekeeper. As much as $1.50, besides several drinks and cigars, was wagered on the contest. Moore, who meant mischief, wanted an eighteen-foot ring, while Twain wanted the orthodox twenty-four-foot ring.

John McComb suggested, as the best means of settling the dispute, that each man should be allowed the ring that he wanted, and two rings were accordingly chalked out on the floor -- a large one of twenty-four feet and a smaller one inside it of eighteen feet. This ingenious arrangement entailed unexpected trouble, for after the first round Twain insisted on staying in his own corner and having Moore restrained from crossing the eighteen-foot frontier line. He called upon the referee to issue a writ of injunction against his antagonist to keep him inside the eighteen-foot chalkmark, and finally, finding the Supreme Court, as it were, against him, jumped the ring altogether and claimed the match on a breach of contract. The spectators, who rolled on their chairs and benches as the amusing contest proceeded, were more exhausted at the close than the combatants, who never after appeared in any ring.

After his first and last ring fight Twain devoted himself to fencing, which he concluded was a much more pleasant road to athletic excellence than the pugilistic pathway. He practiced assiduously for some time, but he could never master the intricacies of the art, and after William Norris doubled up a foil on his ribs one day with a thrust that would have gone through a pine board had the point been without a protecting button, Twain gave up athletics altogether.

"I've concluded, John," said he to McComb, that it's not healthy to have too much muscle anywhere, even on your tongue, so I've quit."

"He hasn't lost anything by the muscles of his tongue, however, " remarked the pioneer, as he looked wistfully at the now empty bottle, and with the other veterans started up town.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:24 AM
Territorial Enterprise, April 1864

MARK TWAIN TAKES A LESSON IN THE MANLY ART
[by Dan DeQuille]

We may have said some harsh things of Mark Twain, but now we take them all back. We feel like weeping for him -- year, we would fall on his breast and mingle our tears with his'n. But those manly shirt front of his air now a bloody one, and his nose is swollen to such an extent that to fall on his breast would be an utter impossibility.

Yesterday, he brought back all our things and promised us that he intended hereafter to lead a virtuous life. This was in the forenoon; in the afternoon he commenced the career of virtue he had marked out for himself and took a first lesson in boxing. Once he had the big gloves on, he imagined that he weighed a ton and could whip his weight in Greek-fire. He waded into a professor of the "manly art" like one of Howlan's rotary batteries, and the professor, in a playful way he has, when he wants to take the conceit out of forward pupils, let one fly straight out from the shoulder and "busted" Mr. Twain in the "snoot," sending him reeling -- not exactly to grass, but across a bench -- with two bountiful streams of "claret" spouting from his nostrils. At first his nose was smashed out till it covered nearly the whole of his face and then looked like a large piece of tripe, but it was finally scraped into some resemblance of a nose, when he rushed away for surgical advice. Pools of gore covered the floor of the Club Room where he fought, and he left a bloody trail for half a mile through the city. It is estimated that he lost several hogsheads of blood in all. He procured a lot of sugar of lead and other cooling lotions and spent the balance of the day in applying them with towels and sponges.

After dark, he ventured forth with his nose swollen to the size of several junk bottles -- a vast, inflammed and pulpy old snoot -- to get advice about having it amputated. None of his friends recognize him now, and he spends his time in solitude, contemplating his ponderous vermillion smeller in a two-bit mirror, which he bought for that purpose. We cannot comfort him, for we know his nose will never be a nose again. It always was somewhat lopsided; now it is a perfect lump of blubber. Since the above was in type, the doctors have decided to amputate poor Mark Twain's smeller. A new one is to be made for him of a quarter of veal.

[reprinted in The Washoe Giant in San Francisco, (George Fields, 1938), pp. 52-53.]

_____

Background info on this story by Dan DeQuille:

One day some imp induced Mark Twain to put on a pair of boxing gloves, and with them all the airs of a knight of the prize ring. He had no thought of boxing with any one. Having seen more or less sparring on the stage, a good deal of amateur boxing, and probably one or two prize fights, Mark had got some of the motions. No sooner had he the gloves on than he began capering about the hall. [George F.] Dawson observed his antics with astonishment not unmixed with awe. He evidently considered that they were made for his special benefit and intimidation. Perhaps he may have thought that he detected Mark regarding him interrogatively from beneath his bushy brows at the end of each series of cabezal rotations. At all events, in view of Mark***8217;s movements of a supposed warlike import, Dawson kept a wary eye on him; never once suspecting that the ex-Mississippi pilot was merely making a bid for his admiration.

Presently Mark squared off directly in front of Dawson and began working his right like the piston of a steam engine, at the same time stretching out his neck and gyrating his curly pate in a very astonishing manner.

Dawson took this to be a direct act of defiance -- a challenge to a trial of skill that could not be ignored. Desperately, therefore -- and probably not without a secret chill of fear at his heart -- Dawson drew off and with full force planted a heavy blow squarely upon Mark***8217;s offered nose, the latter not making the least movement toward a guard.

The result was a ***8220;plentiful flow of claret***8221; and a nose ***8220;like an egg-plant,***8221; which supposedly so embarrassed Clemens that he accepted a reportorial assignment outside Virginia City just ***8220;to get his nose out of town***8221; (William Wright, "Salad Days of Mark Twain," San Francisco Examiner, 19 March 1893, pp.13***8211;14. Reprinted in Mark Twain's Letters, Volume 1: 1853 - 1866.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:24 AM
Territorial Enterprise, April 1864

MARK TWAIN TAKES A LESSON IN THE MANLY ART
[by Dan DeQuille]

We may have said some harsh things of Mark Twain, but now we take them all back. We feel like weeping for him -- year, we would fall on his breast and mingle our tears with his'n. But those manly shirt front of his air now a bloody one, and his nose is swollen to such an extent that to fall on his breast would be an utter impossibility.

Yesterday, he brought back all our things and promised us that he intended hereafter to lead a virtuous life. This was in the forenoon; in the afternoon he commenced the career of virtue he had marked out for himself and took a first lesson in boxing. Once he had the big gloves on, he imagined that he weighed a ton and could whip his weight in Greek-fire. He waded into a professor of the "manly art" like one of Howlan's rotary batteries, and the professor, in a playful way he has, when he wants to take the conceit out of forward pupils, let one fly straight out from the shoulder and "busted" Mr. Twain in the "snoot," sending him reeling -- not exactly to grass, but across a bench -- with two bountiful streams of "claret" spouting from his nostrils. At first his nose was smashed out till it covered nearly the whole of his face and then looked like a large piece of tripe, but it was finally scraped into some resemblance of a nose, when he rushed away for surgical advice. Pools of gore covered the floor of the Club Room where he fought, and he left a bloody trail for half a mile through the city. It is estimated that he lost several hogsheads of blood in all. He procured a lot of sugar of lead and other cooling lotions and spent the balance of the day in applying them with towels and sponges.

After dark, he ventured forth with his nose swollen to the size of several junk bottles -- a vast, inflammed and pulpy old snoot -- to get advice about having it amputated. None of his friends recognize him now, and he spends his time in solitude, contemplating his ponderous vermillion smeller in a two-bit mirror, which he bought for that purpose. We cannot comfort him, for we know his nose will never be a nose again. It always was somewhat lopsided; now it is a perfect lump of blubber. Since the above was in type, the doctors have decided to amputate poor Mark Twain's smeller. A new one is to be made for him of a quarter of veal.

[reprinted in The Washoe Giant in San Francisco, (George Fields, 1938), pp. 52-53.]

_____

Background info on this story by Dan DeQuille:

One day some imp induced Mark Twain to put on a pair of boxing gloves, and with them all the airs of a knight of the prize ring. He had no thought of boxing with any one. Having seen more or less sparring on the stage, a good deal of amateur boxing, and probably one or two prize fights, Mark had got some of the motions. No sooner had he the gloves on than he began capering about the hall. [George F.] Dawson observed his antics with astonishment not unmixed with awe. He evidently considered that they were made for his special benefit and intimidation. Perhaps he may have thought that he detected Mark regarding him interrogatively from beneath his bushy brows at the end of each series of cabezal rotations. At all events, in view of Mark’s movements of a supposed warlike import, Dawson kept a wary eye on him; never once suspecting that the ex-Mississippi pilot was merely making a bid for his admiration.

Presently Mark squared off directly in front of Dawson and began working his right like the piston of a steam engine, at the same time stretching out his neck and gyrating his curly pate in a very astonishing manner.

Dawson took this to be a direct act of defiance -- a challenge to a trial of skill that could not be ignored. Desperately, therefore -- and probably not without a secret chill of fear at his heart -- Dawson drew off and with full force planted a heavy blow squarely upon Mark’s offered nose, the latter not making the least movement toward a guard.

The result was a “plentiful flow of claret” and a nose “like an egg-plant,” which supposedly so embarrassed Clemens that he accepted a reportorial assignment outside Virginia City just “to get his nose out of town” (William Wright, "Salad Days of Mark Twain," San Francisco Examiner, 19 March 1893, pp.13–14. Reprinted in Mark Twain's Letters, Volume 1: 1853 - 1866.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 05:59 AM
The "First Known" Heavyweight Champion
James Figg, an Oxfordshire-born Englishman, is regarded as the first heavyweight champion in the sport's history and it is considered the first documentation of the first bare-fisted fight in history. According to news sources, in 1719, Figg helped popularize boxing by opening a training academy in London. [This is also the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used. It should be noted, that this earliest form of modern boxing was very different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fistfighting, also contained fencing and cudgeling. Source: Wiki] Figg taught the sport to countless pupils and accepted the challenges of all comers. He retired as undefeated champion in 1734. A series of British fighters held the heavyweight crown after Figg. One of the more prominent pugilists was James Broughton, who fought from 1729 to 1750. He was recognized as a heavyweight champion and he too was the proprietor of a successful boxing academy. He is also considered the father of boxing because he was the first to establish rules, encouraged the use of gloves and set up the bouts in an area between ropes. Broughton's rules touched off a chain of reform in boxing that led directly to the Marquis of Queensberry rules. The Queensberry regulations, established in 1867 and the foundation of boxing as we know it today, introduced three-minute rounds and helped facilitate the transition from bare knuckle fights to gloved contests. Figgs is the EARLIEST known fighter whose records still exist. [Source: Legends and Lores, ©Copyrighted - ibhof.com/brithvy.htm]


[Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, and no referee. In general, it was extremely chaotic. The first boxing rules, called the Broughton's rules, were introduced by heavyweight champion Jack Broughton in 1743 to protect fighters in the ring where deaths sometimes occurred.[7] Under these rules, if a man went down and could not continue after a count of 30 seconds, the fight was over. Hitting a downed fighter and grasping below the waist were prohibited. Broughton also invented and encouraged the use of "mufflers", a form of padded gloves, which were used in training and exhibitions. The first paper on boxing was published in the late 18th century by successful Birmingham boxer 'William Futrell' who remained undefeated until his one hour and seventeen minute fight at Smitham Bottom, Croydon, on July 9, 1788 against a much younger "Gentleman" John Jackson which was attended by the Prince of Wales. Source: Wiki]

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 06:00 AM
The FIRST Reported "Fixed" Fight in History!

In documented news sources, the earliest allegations of a fixed fight was in England on May 18, 1771, when Peter Corcoran knocked out Bill Darts in the first round. Apparently, Colonel Dennis O'Kelly, a gambler paid Darts 100 pounds the day before the fight to lose the match, and that O'Kelly ended up winning several thousand pounds on the match.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 06:01 AM
First Fatality to Occur in America in Boxing
September 13, 1842

NEW YORK -In 1842 the news reported that on September 13, in Hastings, there was a prize fight between Christopher Lilly vs. Thomas McCoy. Over 2000 boxing fans came to witness this fight. The fight lasted 2.41 hours, when in the 77th round, McCoy collapsed and died. According to news sources, the coroner's investigation of McCoy's remains showed that fluid from wounds that he had received during the fight had drained into McCoy's lungs and that he had drown! It was the FIRST FATALITY in an fight that took place in America.

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 06:17 AM
FUNERAL OF TOM SAYERS, THE CHAMPION OF ENGLAND.
Wellington Independent, Volume XXI, Issue 2316, 30 January 1866, Page 7
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FUNERAL OF TOM SAVERS, THE CHAMPION OF ENGLAND.
Tiie Daily News says a disgraceful scene occurred at the funeral of Tom Sayers, on tho 15Ah ZSTov : ***8212; "Soon after mid-day aorast crowd had assembled in High- street, Camdcn Town, where the ex-champion lived, and tho main road and pavement from the Mother Redcap, for Beveral hundred yards towards Hampstead, was infested by what lo6ked like an execution mob. Tho shops were nearly all closed, partly perhaps out of respect to the memory of Sayers, and partly, there can bo no question, out of deference to tho evidently prefatory instincts of tho crowd. Jesting, swearing, and rough chaff, wishes that tho music would come, jostling and horse-play were the occupations most in vogue. All the wt|y from High street to the cemetery the same class of people on foot, in carts, and on the roof and inside of over-laden cabs, were to bo seen steadily making for the hero's grave. At tho cemetery itself the gates were guarded by what seemed a strong body of policemen, who only admitted people who either 'gave tho nnmbcr of their tomb,' or otherwise justified their claim to enter. At two p.m. this crowd was easily kept ij^ order, but half-an-hour later a successful rush was made, and somehundred sturdy vagabonds carried the gates by main force, amid tho yells and shouts of their companions. The police succeeded in re-closing the gates, and in again exercising a discrimination as to whom they should admit. As it was tho tombs and covered crypts wero crowded with people who turbulcntly jostled and laughed, trampled on the. grass, and defiled tho graves with as little reverence for the place they were in as if it had been an old prize-ring. The succeeding two hours were taken up in watching the hand-to-hand combat between tho .police outside and tho rapidly-increasing crowd of roughs, in the arrival and admission of tavern celebrities,, each admission being the signal for a struggle on the part of those who wanted to force their way, and in securing vantage ground from which to see tho procession. Soon after four p.m. the sound of drums and trumpets was heard, and the hearse and mourning coaches struggled through the surging disorderly mob. Sayer's pony and dog cart, with his magnificent dog, the sole occupant of the latter, followed immediately after the hearse. The police contrived to keep back the attendant mob for a few moments : but as soon as the coffin was taken into tho cemetery chapel, and before the carriages had filed in, the crowd of thieves and blackguards proved too strong for those opposed to them, and the gates were again stormed. The members of the band, while in tho act of playing tho ' Dead March,' wero scattered pell-mell, their instruments flying overhead and themselves running for safety. Hundreds of tho foulest scum of the back courts and alleys of London, the creatures who only como to light in tho aggregate at an execution or racecourse, or an illegal betting ground, rushed in to hold saturnalia at tho grave side, Ifor a few minutes the police were completely overcome. They wero a mere handful of men against the enemy, but they subsequently ralliod, and once more succeeded in closing tho cemetery gates. Many of the roughs were trodden down in the raid, and after it was over the gasping, speechless forms stretched at no unfrequent intervals on the grass, or reared by their luckier comrades against the tombs, while neckcloths were torn open and animation restored, spoko to tho severity of tho conflict."

McGoorty
10-23-2011, 06:18 AM
TOM SAYERS ON LONDON 'CHANGE.
Published: May 8, 1860
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From the London Observer, April 23.

The neighborhood of the Stock Exchange on Saturday presented an unusual appearance of activity; crowds of persons were assembled in all the thoroughfares leading to this place of business, anxious to witness the arrival of the Champion of England, who, it was announced, would be received by the members of the Stock Exchange, to be presented with a purse of 100 guineas, which had been subscribed for him as a mark of approbation by its members of the great courage which he had displayed in the recent pugilistic contest. The hour stated for the arrival of the Champion was 2 o'clock, but SAYERS made his appearance at a quarter to 12; but although two hours earlier than the hour appointed there were large numbers of persons present. TOM SAYERS, with one of his backers, Mr. BENNETT, was introduced to the Stock Exchange by one of its most active members. Immediately on his entering the room all business was suspended; the brokers now left their desks and crowded around their now celebrated visitor, anxious to catch a glimpse of the man who has been the subject of conversation for the last four days in every part of the Kingdom. TOM was somewhat taken aback by the extraordinary reception given to him, and, as he was conducted round the room, was evidently much surprised at its warmth. After having made the tour of the room, SAYERS was mounted on a table in the French market, and gracefully acknowledged the repeated cheers of the members, and, in a few homely, earnest words, thanked those present for the Kindness they had displayed towards him. He seemed even affected by the extraordinary scene before him, and his appearance showed no signs worth mentioning of that tremendous castigation which he was stated to have experienced; and but for having his arm in a sling, there was nothing whatever to indicate that he was disabled. One of the members of the Stock Exchange expressed his surprise that he should be looking so well after the 20 knock-down blows he was said to have received, and to this SAYERS replied that it was a bit of a wonder to himself, but he said he was sorry he had not had ten minutes more with his opponent. The "house" was unusually crowded on the occasion, and Sir ROBERT CARDEN and most of the principal members were present. On leaving the Stock Exchange, SAYERS was accompanied to the cab by one of the members of the Exchange most active in getting up the subscription, and a bag containing 100 guineas was handed to him.

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 10:30 AM
The Old One-Two: Boxing in Regency England

Boxing was easily one of Regency England's most popular spectator sports, enjoyed by kings and commoners alike. The men who taught it were called the emperors of pugilism, and those who practiced it were called the Fancy. At one match alone, over 200 thousand pounds were wagered on the outcome. It was not uncommon for twenty thousand people to view a match.

By far the most famous of the Regency era boxers was "Gentleman" John Jackson. Born in 1769 to a Worcestershire family of builders, John decided at age 19 to become a boxer, much against his parents' wishes. At 5 feet 11 inches tall and 195 pounds, his body was said to be so perfectly developed (with the Regency idea of "perfection" being the statues of the Greek gods), that artists and sculptors came from all around to use him as a model. He dressed well (although he favored bright colors) and spoke in cultured tones, making him the darling of the ton. His two flaws in looks, I learned, were that he had a sloping forehead and ears that stuck straight out from the sides of his head. Presumably, the sculptors and artists used someone else to model the head.

Although the acknowledged king of the ring, Jackson actually only fought professionally three times, loosing once. However, as the other two times he fought men who were considered the top champions, he was considered in his time the heavy-weight champion of England. He is credited with a scientific style of boxing, which he taught three times a week during the London Season from his rooms in No. 13 Bond Street. Lord Byron was an avid student. This style included nimble footwork and the principle that a hit was not effective unless the distance was judged correctly. It also included adopting a posture of a slightly bent body, head and shoulders forward, and knees slightly bent and at ease with fists well up. He taught that fighting with the entire body (scrapping or bullying) was ineffective against the power of a well-trained fist, proving his point by having his students attempt to attack him and fending them off with fists alone.

He also is credited with keeping the sport honest in a time when bouts were often fixed. He developed the equivalent of the Boxing Commission in the Pugilistic Club, which collected subscriptions from wealthy patrons and sponsored fights several times a year. For each fight, a Banker was appointed to hold the purse as well as many side bets that might be made. Jackson was often nominated for this position.

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 10:30 AM
Besides teaching and arranging fights, Jackson also arranged pugilistic demonstrations for the aristocracy, including fights before the Emperor of Russia, King of Prussia, the Prince of Wales, and the Prince of Mecklenburg. At the 1821 coronation of George IV, Jackson furnished a group of pugilists to act as guards to keep lesser mortals from attending the event. Other Regency era professional boxers were Tom Belcher, Tom Cribb, and Mendoza, the man whom Jackson beat to become champion.

A boxing match in Regency times was markedly different from what we know today. While practicing the sport was allowed, actual matches were frowned upon by the magistrates, and often had to be held out of town, sometimes in open fields. Instead of an elevated ring as we know it, an eight-foot square was roped off on the ground with stakes at each corner. Each fighter had a knee man and a bottle man, who also kept time on the rounds and breaks. The former knelt with one knee up for the boxer to sit on between rounds. The latter provided water for the boxer to drink, a sponge to wipe him down, and an orange to provide a quick burst of energy. Brandy was supposed to be used only for emergencies. A pair of umpires, usually former fighters themselves, kept the two fighters apart and agreed upon how to deal with questionable practices like holding a man***8217;s hair to keep in him place to be hit. A referee was only used if the two umpires could not agree.

The bouts consisted of rounds; each round lasted until at least one of the men was knocked or thrown off his feet. A fight could last up to 50 rounds. If you do the math like I did, that means that someone was hit hard enough to fall down up to 50 times in one fight. And breaks between these rounds (after each hit) were only 30 seconds. In addition, bouts were fought with bare knuckles and bared chests. This was definitely not a sport for the squeamish!

Understandably, proper women were not supposed to attend boxing matches. However, some came in disguise and others less concerned with their reputations came openly. In addition, some women took boxing lessons in the privacy of their own homes. The practice was thought to provide an excellent exercise for young ladies, keeping them nimble and healthy. Apparently practicing was considered better than actually viewing the sport.

Near the end of the 19th century, improvements in the sport brought boxing closer to the sport we know today. Although boxing gloves were invented in the late 1700s, they were not required to be used until 1867, when the Marquess of Queensberry drew up rules of boxing. These rules also included shortening the rounds to a timed period, providing longer breaks between rounds, and limiting the kinds of blows that could count as a hit. During the Regency, however, boxing remained the no-holds-barred, no-quarter given kind of fight that made the aristocracy and the common folk cheer.

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 10:42 AM
Gentleman John Jackson and Daniel Mendoza: Heavy Hitters of Regency Boxing
By LAURA BOYLE | Published: JULY 17, 2011.............................................. ............... -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------John Jackson
***8220;Gentleman***8221; John Jackson (28 September 1769 ***8211; 7 October 1845) was a celebrated pugilist of the late 18th century.

He won the title Champion of England in a fight on 15 April 1795 in which he beat Daniel Mendoza. It was one of the shortest main battles ever fought, lasting in all but ten minutes and a half; and for its time quite the hardest ever fought at all. Mendoza was badly cut up; the new champion was hardly hurt.

Seven years after the encounter recorded above a letter appeared in the Daily Oracle and Advertiser which purported to be a challenge from Mendoza to Jackson for a return match. As a fact, the letter was a practical joke; but a part of Jackson***8217;s reply is worth quoting, as it is so characteristic of all we hear of the man.

***8220;. . . for some years,***8221; he wrote, ***8220;I have entirely withdrawn from a public life, and am more and more convinced of the propriety of my conduct by the happiness which I enjoy in private among many friends of great respectability, with whom it is my pride to be received on terms of familiarity and friendship. . . .***8221;

Jackson never fought again, and one of the greatest reputations in the annals of the championship that have come to us is based upon a pugilist who only entered the ring thrice! One other champion was in precisely the same case, and that was John Gulley, whom we shall come to in due course.

No doubt Jackson attracted to himself a good deal of attention apart from the eccentricity of his good behaviour. He was a man of prodigious strength and is said to have written his name whilst an 84 lb. weight was suspended from his little finger.

After his retirement he took rooms at 13 Old Bond Street, creating Jackson***8217;s Saloon, a boxing academy which became a regular and fashionable house of call for the young bloods of the day.

It became the correct thing to take a course of boxing lessons from John Jackson. Byron, who was a keen boxer despite his infirmity, used to go there to keep down the fat of which he ever lived in terror. In his diary for March l7th, 1814, he swrote: ***8220;I have been sparring with Jackson for exercise this morning, and mean to continue and renew my acquaintance with my mufflers. My chest, and arms, and wind are in very good plight, and I am not in flesh. I used to be a hard hitter and my arms are very long for my height.***8221;***8212;which was 5 ft 8J inches***8212;***8221; At rate, exercise is good, and this the severest of all ; fencing and broadsword never fatigued me half so much.***8221;

Byron regarded John Jackson as a friend whom he greatly admired. He wrote letters to him on several occasions.

Jackson had innumerable pupils and was about the first real instructor of boxing for amateurs. He went to his grave in Brompton Cemetery old and honoured in 1845.

Jackson died in 1847 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery, London. ---

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 10:42 AM
PART TWO :----Daniel Mendoza
Daniel Mendoza (5 July 1764 , Whitechapel, London; 3 September 1836) (often known as Dan Mendoza) was an English prizefighter, who was boxing champion of England 1792-95. He was a Sephardic Jew, and is sometimes called the father of scientific boxing.

Before Mendoza, boxers generally stood still and merely swapped punches. Mendoza***8217;s style consisted of more than simply battering opponents into submission, his ***8220;scientific style***8221; included much defensive movement. He developed an entirely new style of boxing, incorporating defensive strategies, such as what he called ***8220;side-stepping***8221;, moving around, and ducking, blocking, and, all in all, avoiding punches. Sounds simplistic now , but it was revolutionary back then. His ability to overcome much heavier adversaries was a consequence of this. Though he stood only 5***8217;7***8243; and weighed only 160 pounds, Mendoza was England***8217;s sixteenth Heavyweight Champion from 1792 to 1795. Thus he holds probably the greatest record in Boxing History, as he is the only middleweight to ever win the Heavyweight Championship of the World. In 1789 he opened his own boxing academy and published The Art of Boxing the book on modern ***8220;scientific***8221; style boxing which every subsequent boxer learned from.

Mendoza was so popular that the London press reported news of one of his bouts ahead of the storming of the Bastille which marked the start of the French Revolution. He transformed the English stereotype of a Jew from a weak, defenseless person into someone deserving of respect. He is said to have been the first Jew to talk to the King, George III.

His early boxing career was defined by three bouts with his former mentor Richard Humphries between 1788 and 1790. The first of these was lost due to Humphries***8217;s second (the former Champion, Tom Johnson) blocking a blow. The second two bouts were won by Mendoza. The third bout set history in another way . It was the first time spectators were charged an entry payment to a sporting event. The fights were hyped by a series of combative letters in the press between Humphries and Mendoza.

Mendoza***8217;s ***8220;memoirs***8221; report that he got involved in three fights whilst on his way to watch a boxing match. The reasons were: (a) someone***8217;s cart cut in; (b) he felt a shopkeeper was trying to cheat him; (c) he didn***8217;t like how a man was looking at him.

In 1795 Mendoza fought ***8220;Gentleman***8221; John Jackson for the Championship at Hornchurch in Essex. Jackson was five years younger, 4 inches taller, and 42 lbs. heavier. The bigger man won in nine rounds, paving the way to victory by seizing Mendoza by his long hair and holding him with one hand while he pounded his head with the other. Mendoza was pummelled into submission in around ten minutes. Since this date boxers have worn their hair short.

After 1795 Mendoza began to seek other sources of income, becoming the landlord of the ***8220;Admiral Nelson***8221; pub in Whitechapel. He turned down a number of offers for re-matches and in 1807 wrote a letter to The Times in which he said he was devoting himself chiefly to teaching the art. In 1809 he and some associates were hired by the theatre manager Kemble in an attempt to suppress the OP Riots; the resulting poor publicity probably cost Mendoza much of his popular support, as he was seen to be fighting on the side of the privileged.

Mendoza made and spent a fortune. His Memoirs (written in 1808 but not published until 1816) report that he tried a number of ventures, including touring the British Isles giving boxing demonstrations; appeared in a pantomime entitled Robinson Crusoe or Friday Turned Boxer; opening a boxing academy at the Lyceum in the Strand; working as a recruiting sergeant for the army; printing his own paper money; and being a pub landlord.

Mendoza made his last public appearance as a boxer in 1820 at Banstead Downs in a grudge match against Tom Owen; Mendoza was, at the time, 57***8211; Owen, a sprightly 52. Youth, as the saying goes, will be served, and Mendoza was defeated after 12 rounds.

Intelligent, charismatic but chaotic, he died in 1836, leaving his family in poverty. He was 72.

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 10:47 AM
The Fight

ROUND 1-- Both fighters feint and spar with one another for the advantage, with neither committing fully to his blows. Mendoza, a natural counterpuncher, is waiting for Jackson to make the first move. Jackson complies, flooring Mendoza with a tremendous punch. Mendoza lies prostrate on the stage.
ROUND 2-- Jackson is unable to exploit his initial advantage. Mendoza gets into his stride, blocking all of Jackson's punches and replying with several good counterpunches.
ROUND 3-- Both fighters are more alert now. They begin exchanging punches, and while both land well, Mendoza goes down.
ROUND 4-- Jackson is now growing more confident. He goes after Mendoza, ignores several stinging counterpunches, and begins to pummel the champion. He lands a vicious blow on the right eye that drops Mendoza. The champion, bleeding heavily, goes back to his corner. ROUND 5-- Jackson seizes Mendoza's long hair and pummels him with the other hand until Mendoza collapses from pain and exhaustion. An appeal is made to the referees, who, after consulting Broughton's rules, conclude that this action is indeed legal. The fight continues.
ROUND 6, 7, and 8-- Mendoza is now hurt, exhausted, and forced on the defensive. Jackson never gives him time for recovery, showing complete superiority in skill. He beats the champion up badly.
ROUND 9-- Mendoza has no chance. Jackson is still as fresh as he was at the beginning of the fight, and is landing punches at will on Mendoza. Mendoza collapses from exhaustion and surrenders.
The entire fight lasted for only ten and a half minutes.
Aftermath

Mendoza retired after this fight, unable to find backers for another fight with Jackson. It is doubtful whether anyone would have been willing to risk his money on Mendoza in view of his opposition--Jackson had showed complete superiority over Mendoza even before he seized the former champion's hair in the fifth round.
Mendoza went on to start a pub, and relaxed into a moderately successful quiet life. He hated and resented Jackson long after their fight, and the breach was never healed. Mendoza also proved helpful to the English Jewish community in later life--in those days there were a sizeable number of Jewish bettors involved in boxing, and Mendoza was invaluable in appraising the fighters to help set the odds.
Jackson had a long and successful career ahead of him. He retired immediately after the Mendoza fight, but despite this Jackson spearheaded the movement to bring organization to his beloved sport. It was Jackson's influence, through the Pugilistic Club and his own appearances at major fights, that allowed English Pugilism to remain relatively respectable until the mid-1820's. He was well-regarded by all as an honest, intelligent, and hard-working promoter of pugilism.
Sources: Pierce Egan's Boxiana; Henry Downes Miles' Pugilistica.

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 11:03 AM
Mid 1700s ***8211; Broughton***8217;s Rules
Published by: Alfie Wilkinson

Boxing History in the 18th Century: Broughton's Rules Evolve Boxing & Sport
With today***8217;s morals and enlightenment it is hard to accept the bloody and brutal world of bareknuckle boxing as a legitimate sport. However, a look back from Broughton***8217;s rules and the birth of modern pugilism in the eighteenth century, the shift of power from London to America, and the ultimate decline in favor of gloved boxing, offers us a unique look at the organization and development of modern sport. As the first sport to match opponents from different races and religions against each other, the history of pugilism also has much to teach us of nationalism and race relations.

Broughton***8217;s rules and the birth of modern sport:
Boxing: A Cultural History

Sale Price: $18.63
For a sport to achieve legitimacy and transparency it must first have a set code of rules and regulations for all to adhere to. Also, a legitimate sport must have regular participants and set venues. All of this sounds obvious enough but before pugilist Jack Broughton introduced such measures few sports had any such characteristics. Pugilism paved the way for the sporting world as we know it today.

Jack Broughton was born in Britain in 1703. A strong and athletic young man he worked as a waterman on London***8217;s vast river Thames. An early exposure to pugilism and fencing saw the young Broughton gain a tremendous reputation and by the 1730s was considered Britain***8217;s finest combatant. The groundbreaking Broughton embraced new media and openly used newspapers and his relationships with journalists to entice fans and challenge opponents. His actions were to give his sport prominence, legitimacy and entertainment, often attributes only credited to the modern form of boxing.

Before Broughton, pugilism, and many other sports, often consisted of unruly competitions between the staff of nobility. Broughton embraced a new idea of professional sport, where a fighter would dedicate his time to training and competing. Staging bouts in specially designed amphitheatres, which could charge spectators an entrance fee, allowed a regular clientele to develop and real money to be earned. But the sport was still a messy and violent past time with little to no regard for its participant's health, and wide spread reforms were needed.

So, in 1743, after opening his own amphitheatre, the undefeated Broughton sought to legitimize the sport by creating a list of rules. A bout against ***8216;The Coachman***8217; George Stevenson in 1741, in which Broughton won, but Stevenson died from the injuries he suffered, highlighted the need for change. Broughton***8217;s rules included allowing a knocked down fighter thirty seconds in which to regain composure, the appointment of ***8216;gentlemen***8217; to serve as umpires, and most importantly that no fighter could hit an opponent who is knocked down, pull an opponent***8217;s hair or strike below the waist.

By 1750, the famed and feared Broughton signed to fight Jack Slack for the championship of England. This bout, however, would end in controversy rather than glory and bring about Broughton***8217;s demise.

While fighters were no longer the butlers and footmen of the British gentry, the sport certainly still needed their financial patronage and support. Pugilism had been outlawed in Britain but with the backing of the upper classes local justices would turn a blind eye. The Duke of Cumberland was one such powerful patron. He often backed Broughton and with his man the overwhelming favorite against Slack, wagered a staggering £10,000 on Broughton to win.

After just five minutes the less skilled Slack landed a powerful blow to Broughton***8217;s eye. Virtually blinded, the hapless Broughton struggled on for a brutal ten further minutes. Utterly outclassed and injured, Broughton conceding defeat. The Duke believed the fight had been thrown and was enraged. Utilizing his power and influence over justice officials he had Broughton***8217;s amphitheatre closed and drove the fledgling sport underground. Following this unceremonious ending, Broughton chose to leave pugilism and spend the rest of his days financially secure, but isolated from public life. Although the sport forgot him, it did not forget his rules, which were used for a further eighty-eight years before being modified.

Broughton, despite his quiet ending, was possibly the most important individual in combative sports. He gave the ***8216;sweet science***8217; legitimacy and structure. He embraced the notion of the professional sportsman, the importance of enticing spectators, and most significantly, of the safety of the pugilists themselves. These ideas laid the foundations, not only for pugilism, but for all the sports we enjoy today.

McGoorty
10-31-2011, 01:57 PM
BOXING: ITS REBIRTH
In January of 1681, the Protestant Mercury (a London newspaper) reported the story of a bare-knuckle boxing match between the Duke of Albermarle's footman and a butcher. In this first-known newspaper story about a boxing match, the butcher won.

At the time, boxing was really a mixture of wrestling and boxing. (The ancients also had a mixed wrestling/boxing sport, called Pankration, whose rules would never pass muster today. Biting an opponent - or gouging his eyes, nose and mouth with fingernails - was all that was prohibited.)

Not until James Figg became a boxer, in 1719, was any effort made to train would-be participants in a boxing school. Figg, known as the "father of boxing" (he fought nearly 300 times before his death in 1734), started a Boxing Academy and died unbeaten. He was known, as well, for challenging just about anyone to boxing bouts at his Southwark Fair booth.

Although the sport was still vicious then, without rules or regulations, the King (George I) enjoyed the spectacle. His interest (in 1723 he set up a boxing ring in London's Hyde Park) helped boxing to regain respectability.

One of Figg's students, John ("Jack") Broughton, introduced the sport's first rules in 1743 - after an opponent died following a fight. His rules included breaks, if a boxer were knocked down, and gloves used for practice.

Marchegiano
10-31-2011, 09:24 PM
This is all good stuff,. I love the surprises that I come across, TOM TOUGH is a bloke I never heard of, but he was a full-on all-action pre-Battling nelson - Jake LaMotta type. Tough eschewed the normal drcorum, had no time for the ceremonious type of thing and conformity of type, Tom was a fighter because he loved getting bruises as much as giving them........ man he's the god-father of the modern slugger, an Englishman who fought like a NOO York immigrant.

Yeah dude, I didn't mention it, but I didn't know **** about the guy except record w/l before you wrote this. I've been reading **** on him since. Basically the inventor of traits over skills. Like you said the godfather of all sluggers.


Pankrations would straight murder today's MMArtist.....just saying for to say it.

McGoorty
11-01-2011, 01:56 AM
Pankration was the real Ultimate Fighting Championship. What I really loved was reading that bit in Boxiana about Richard III's fistic abilities,... hardly a hunchback eh !!..... I have read everything about that King, and I have always known that Shakespeare's version was total lies...... It turns out the princes in the tower weren't princes at all because grandma once had it off with a French Blacksmith, therefore Richard was right about them being bastards all along (according to the rules back then).... Yeah Richard did order the deaths of the boys but he knew that the boy hated him and Richard was saving himself from the 'ol hanging Drawing & Quartering in a couple of years time. -------------------------------------------- I write here about Richard III because he was a GREAT warrior, I have read that he was the most feared knight that that century knew, and he is the earliest name ever connected with pugilism in England although it is said that Alfred The Great, Cynning* of the West Saexons had his soldiers training in boxing skills.......... Clearly the Saexons are some of the hardest men known in antiquity, and it is my opinion that they indeed were keen on any martial endeavour, and were handy with bare fists,... I also believe that the great game of cricket was also brought to Britain by them..... there are Saexon shields for instance which have depictions of a game with bat & ball which looks very much like cricket, and on these artifacts there are also depictions of warriors shaping up to each other with bared fists. The saexons are the great-grandfather's of modern sport, they also played a kind of football where multiple deaths were known........ more like a mass brawl of hundreds of pugilists running around holding a pigskin, this football type game they played may be the most dangerous sport ever known in history..... gee I'm glad I live now instead, I have serious doubts that I'd have lasted a month among those ancestors......... Thanks for posting mate, if it wasn't for you, I would quit doing these threads due to the TOTAL lack of interest of anything Boxing before Bob Fitzsimmons came along,.. man when you think about how long ago Richard III was, you realise that Fitz is incredibly modern, it's as if he just retired a short time ago............... please keep posting replies,... have you read my NaT Langham thread ????.-

Marchegiano
11-02-2011, 12:51 AM
Got to say i've missed it. I dig around a bit...a search should do it.

Yeah Richard was cool as ****. You've seen the Blackadder right? That was great. A horse, a horse. He was infamous for being out numbered. I like the fake IV they made for the show. He's a lot like the real III I imagined.


It's crazy how little people are interested in pre-Fitzs. You'd think there'd be a whole crowd of ancient fans sharing scraps of info....at least before the Internet I used to. I can't believe how many people think of Fitzs as an ATG, but don't give a god damn about NP....or hell even Fitzs bare-knuckle career. I don't know how you can be a fan and not follow the lineage back. Anyway, post not for me, but for the future you, or next one searching. That's why I keep coming back and dropping old ass names on ATG lists. ATG really means from 1890's to now for 99% of boxing fans, but one day some other fellas gone come about wondering who taught what to who, or who did what when, or something similar. You've made a hell of a foundation....It sucks that you've pushed bare knucklers into boxing scene's face and BS still don't give a damn.

I too over my father's company after he passed. It's been busy for me, but I'll probably always get online to talk boxing. I have to make time these days, which takkes a bit out of the relaxing aspect of it, but if I don't tell someone about Jem Mace, or defend Rocco. The idea that ignorant ****ers aren't bringing up names that shaped the sport. Or that stupid ****ers are calling Rocky the worst champion of all time. Will always get me to make time. I'll always be somewhere...likely here. To keep sacred the memories of those shoulders we stand on.....Newton knows what I mean..

McGoorty
11-02-2011, 04:18 AM
Got to say i've missed it. I dig around a bit...a search should do it.

Yeah Richard was cool as ****. You've seen the Blackadder right? That was great. A horse, a horse. He was infamous for being out numbered. I like the fake IV they made for the show. He's a lot like the real III I imagined.


It's crazy how little people are interested in pre-Fitzs. You'd think there'd be a whole crowd of ancient fans sharing scraps of info....at least before the Internet I used to. I can't believe how many people think of Fitzs as an ATG, but don't give a god damn about NP....or hell even Fitzs bare-knuckle career. I don't know how you can be a fan and not follow the lineage back. Anyway, post not for me, but for the future you, or next one searching. That's why I keep coming back and dropping old ass names on ATG lists. ATG really means from 1890's to now for 99% of boxing fans, but one day some other fellas gone come about wondering who taught what to who, or who did what when, or something similar. You've made a hell of a foundation....It sucks that you've pushed bare knucklers into boxing scene's face and BS still don't give a damn.

I too over my father's company after he passed. It's been busy for me, but I'll probably always get online to talk boxing. I have to make time these days, which takkes a bit out of the relaxing aspect of it, but if I don't tell someone about Jem Mace, or defend Rocco. The idea that ignorant ****ers aren't bringing up names that shaped the sport. Or that stupid ****ers are calling Rocky the worst champion of all time. Will always get me to make time. I'll always be somewhere...likely here. To keep sacred the memories of those shoulders we stand on.....Newton knows what I mean..
Yeah thanks for that, as I said all this bare-knuckle stuff is spread out in snippets all over the net, and I want to put ALL of it on this thread. I don't know why they don't want to discuss these guy's,... what can you expect when they don't even put Les Darcy in any lists, I maintain that Darcy beats every MW in the last 50 years and I make NO APOLOGIES for that, I just don't see how those guys can cope with such a strong and BIG MW with all that skill.---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I rate Fitz in the top 5 LHW's, but why doesn't LPRR catch peoples imagination ??.. I wish I knew, but anyway maybe one day, people will thank me for some of my REAL threads like this one and the Darcy Book. Maybe I should make more outrageous posts to get some replies here, but they probably don't even read these articles...... my time will come... if there are enough true fans left.

McGoorty
11-02-2011, 04:24 AM
Got to say i've missed it. I dig around a bit...a search should do it.

Yeah Richard was cool as ****. You've seen the Blackadder right? That was great. A horse, a horse. He was infamous for being out numbered. I like the fake IV they made for the show. He's a lot like the real III I imagined.


It's crazy how little people are interested in pre-Fitzs. You'd think there'd be a whole crowd of ancient fans sharing scraps of info....at least before the Internet I used to. I can't believe how many people think of Fitzs as an ATG, but don't give a god damn about NP....or hell even Fitzs bare-knuckle career. I don't know how you can be a fan and not follow the lineage back. Anyway, post not for me, but for the future you, or next one searching. That's why I keep coming back and dropping old ass names on ATG lists. ATG really means from 1890's to now for 99% of boxing fans, but one day some other fellas gone come about wondering who taught what to who, or who did what when, or something similar. You've made a hell of a foundation....It sucks that you've pushed bare knucklers into boxing scene's face and BS still don't give a damn.

I too over my father's company after he passed. It's been busy for me, but I'll probably always get online to talk boxing. I have to make time these days, which takkes a bit out of the relaxing aspect of it, but if I don't tell someone about Jem Mace, or defend Rocco. The idea that ignorant ****ers aren't bringing up names that shaped the sport. Or that stupid ****ers are calling Rocky the worst champion of all time. Will always get me to make time. I'll always be somewhere...likely here. To keep sacred the memories of those shoulders we stand on.....Newton knows what I mean..
Richard III, was for real, he lost the battle of Bosworth because of that filthy bastard Lord Stanley... unfortunately that English generation were treasonous scum, and thankfully the nightmare that was to become Henry VII (tudor), made all their lives a misery,.. they were made to pay just as bad as the traitors who murdered Caesar, an action which doomed every Roman to follow.... (Caesar was the only genius with the nous to fix all the problems), and same with England, if I was Richard. I would have done the same, except I would have killed Stanley's son for that treason. Richard the 3rd was no where near as evil as Tudor became..... remember, he's Henry VIII's dad.